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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Simple Epithelium
shape - single layer of cells
function - lining
location - body cavities, ducts, and tubes
pseudostratafied epithelium
shape - single layer of cells that looks like a double layer (columnar)
function -
location - respiratory passages and reproductive tracts
top of the body
closer to the trunk (torso)
toward the front of the body
divides the body lengthwise from anterior to posterior and side to side
top and bottom halves. The transverse plane refers to a slice made through the waist.
Stratified epithelium
shape - squamous, cuboidal, columnar
function - protection
location - respratory, reproductive tracts, sweat glands
hyaline cartilage
function - firm but flexable support.
location - nose,bones, larynx, rings in trachea and bronchi
of two body parts, the one farthest from the head.

bottom half of the body
away from the trunk
toward the back of the body
divides the body into right and left halves
Exocrine glands
shape -
function - secrete products onto free epithelial surface
location - via ducts or tubes.
They secrete mucus, saliva, wax, and milk, for example.
Endocrine glands
ductless and release hormones into the fluid that surrounds the gland.
Connective Tissue Characteristics:

Type, Function, Location
Loose - connection, between other tissues and organs.

Dense, irregular - has fewer cells and more fibers that are thick. It forms protective capsules around organs.

Dense, regular - has bundled parallel collagen fibers such as in ligaments (bone to bone) and tendons (muscle to bone).
Connective Tissue Characteristics:

Type, Function, Location

Hyaline - reduces friction - ends of bones, nose, whindpipe, and ribs

Elastic - able to bend yet maintain shape - external ear and eustachian tube.

Fibrous - sturdy & resilient, withstands pressure - in the disks that separate the vertebrae.

Bone - support & protection, skeleton.

Adipose - protection, insulation, support, reserve food - under skin and padding at various points.

Blood - transportation and protection - in blood vessels.
Muscle Tissue Characteristics:
Skeletal - attaches to bones (via tendons) for voluntary movement: it contains striated (actin and myosin) multinucleated, long cells (fibers which are often bundled together to form a “muscle”.

Smooth - contains spindle shaped cells with a single nucleus: it lines the gut, blood vessels and glands its operation is involuntary.

Cardiac - (heart) muscle is composed of short, striated cells that can function in units due to the contracting signal that passes from cell to cell by way of the gap junctions.
Cell Junctions: holding tissues together:
Tight junctions = link cells of epithelial tissues to form seals that keep molecules form freely crossing the epithelium, without tight junctions solutions would flow around the cells into the body.

Adhering junctions = are like spot welds in tissues subject to stretching (the bladder).

Gap junctions = link the cytoplasm of adjacent cells: they form communication channels.
What are glands and what functions do they serve?
· Glands are secretory structures derived from epithelium in which goblet cells (mucus producing) are embedded
· Glands are classified according to how their products reach the site where they are used

Exocrine glands often secrete their product through ducts to a free surfaces: they secrete mucus, saliva, earwax, milk, oil and digestive enzymes.
· Simple exocrine glands have only a few branches
· Compound glands have many branches.
· Apocrine glands (e.g. mammary) include bits of gland cells in their secretions.
· Holocrine glands (e.g. oil) whole cells are released which may later release the secretions inside the duct.
· Merocrine glands (e.g. salivary) do not include cell elements in their secretions.

Endocrine glands have no ducts, but distribute their product (hormones) via the blood.
What are the "non-support" functions of bone.
they also work with muscles to perform movement.
Describe the transport functions of blood.
The fluid plasma contains suspended formed elements: red blood cells (oxygen transport), white cells (defense) and platelets (clotting).

Blood transports oxygen, wastes, hormones and enzymes.
Explain neuron functions.
Neuron functions

1) Sensory neurons pick up stimuli and conduct to the central nervous system

2) Motor neurons conduct impulses to muscles and glands.
Describe the structure of a neuron.
Neutron Structure

1) Neurons, and associated neuroglia cells, are organizes as lines of communication throughout the body.
2) Branched dendrites pick up chemical messages and pass them to an outgoing axon
3) Communication between neurons is by chemical neurotransmitters, such an acetylcholine.

4) A nerve is a bundle of neuron processes conduct to and from the CNS.
What do axons and dendrites do?
An axon or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body or soma.

Dendrites are the branched projections of a neuron that act to conduct the electrical stimulation received from other neural cells to the cell body.
mucous membranes -
Mucus membranes line the tubes and cavities of the digestive, respiratory, and reproductive systems where embedded glands secrete mucus that act as lubricants.
serous membranes -
Serous membranes such as those that line the thoracic cavity do not contain glands, they also produce lubricants.
cuaneous membranes -
synoval membranes -
have no epithelial cells, only connective tissue. These membranes line the sheaths of tendons and the capsules around certain joints. These cells secrete fluid that lubricate the ends of moving bones or prevents friction between moving tendons and the bone it is attached to.
Name the eleven major organ systems in the human body.
Eleven organ systems (integumentary, muscular, skeletal, nervous, endocrine, circulatory, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary, and reproductive) contribute to the survival of all the living cells of the body.
Name the five major cavities of the human body.
The major cavities of the human body are: cranial, spinal, thoracic, abdominal, and sometimes pelvic. They provide a location for many of the organ systems, so that these systems can move and act independently of the rest of the body.
Name the three primary tissue layers, and tell what kinds of organ systems come from each.
ectoderm, endoderm, & mesoderm
The ectoderm is the start of a tissue that covers the body surfaces. It emerges first and forms from the outermost of the germ layers.

Endoderm - Gastrointestinal tract, Respiratory tract, Endocrine glands and organs (liver and pancreas).

mesoderm - from which connective tissue, muscle, bone, and the urogenital and circulatory systems develop.
Scar tissue is a type of:
connective tissue
Which is not a type of epithelium?
The "stem cells" that will develop into other types of connective cells are
mesenchymal cells
Which of the following fibrous elements gives a connective tissue high tensile strength?
collagen fibers
The cell that forms bone is the
Which of the following cell types secretes haistamine and heparin which stimulate local inflammation?
mast cell
Resistance to stress applied in a longitudinal (lengthwise) direction is provided best by:
dense regular connective
What kind of connective tissue acts as a sponge, soaking up fluid when edema occurs?
areolar connective
Viewed through the microscope, most cells in this type of tissue have an empty appearance.
adipose connective
The major function of reticular tissue is:
stroma formation
What type of connective tissue prevents muscles from pulling away from bones during contraction?
dense regular connective
The type of tissue that cobers body surfaces, lines body cavities, and forms glands is?
Epithelial tissue is attached to the underlying connective tissue by:
a basement membrane
The basement membrane is composed of
ritcular lamina, and basal lamina
Epithelial tissue fall into which of the following classifications:
covering and lining, and glandular
Single layers of epithelium are called:
Flattened epithelial cells are