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53 Cards in this Set

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Tissues
Groups of cellls that are similar in structure and function
4 Primary Tissue types
Epithelial:cover, Connective: support, Nervous: conduct, & Muscular: movement
Epithelial Tissure Characteristics
Composed of closely packed cells, cellularity. Adjacent epithelial cells are bound together by specialized contacts. Exhibits polarity. Supported by underlying connective tissue. Innervated but avascular. Regeneration capacity.
Classification of Epithelia
Each epithelial tissue is given two names. The 1st name indicates the number of layers present (simple or stratified). 2nd name describes the shape of the cells (squamous, cuboidal, or columnar) Is nucleus flat round or oval?
Simple Epithelia
mostly concerned with absorption, secretion, and filtration
Simple Cuboidal
single layer of cube-shaped cells. Commonly active in secretion and absorption. Found in glands and in kidney tubules.
Simple squamous
single layer of fish scale-shaped cells. Highly adapted for filtration and exchange of substances. Forms walls of air sacs of the lungs and lines blood vessels
Simple columnar
single layer of column-shaped cells. Specialized for secretion & absorption, lines most of digestive tract.
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
contains cells of varying heights giving the false impression of the presence of many layers. Its ciliated variet rich in goblet cells, lines most of the upper respiratory passages.
Stratified epithelia's main funtion
protection.
Straitfied squamous epithelia
composed of several layers w/ the cells on the free surface being squamous-shaped and the underlying cells being cuboidal or columnar in shape. Adapted to resist abrasion. It lines the esophagus and vagina
Statified cuboidal epithelia
rare
stratified columnar epithelium
found in limited distribution.
Transitional epithelium
modified stratified squamous epithelium, adapted for responding to stretch. Lines hollow urinary system organs and stretches as they fill
Gland
one or more cells specialzed to secrete a product
Glandular classification
by basis of site: endocrine or Exocrine. By structure: multicellular or unicellular.
Endocrine glands
Eventually lose their ducts, therefore called ductless glands. Produce / secrete hormones by exocytosis directly into the blood or lymph. Go along way. Long distance messagers
Exocrine glands
have ducts and secrete their product onto a surface or into body cavities. More numerous than endocrine. Secret products onto body surfaces (skin) or into body cavities: mucous, sweat, oil , & salviary glands- the unicellular glands directly (by exocytosis) and the multicellular glands via an epithelial-walled duct that transports the secretion to thewpithelial surface. Functional classification: merocrine or holocrine. Local messenger
unicellular exocrine gland
only important example is the goblet cell.
multicellular exocrine glands
composed of a duct & secretory unit. Classified according to duct structure as simple or compound, and according to the structure of their secretory parts as tubular, alveolar, or tubuloalveolar.
multicellular exocrine glands modes of secretion
meriocrine glands: secrete by exocytosis as they are produced. The secretory cells are not altered in any way - pancreas, most sweat and slivary glands.
holocrine glands
accumulate their products w/in them until they rupture. They die for the cause.
Functions of Connective Tissue
Major functions of connective tissue are binding and support, protection, insulation, and transportation.
connective tissue proper
cartilage, bone, blood
Common Charactersitics of Conn. Tissue
All conn. Tissue arises from an embryonic tissue called mesenchyme. Conn tissue ranges from avascular to highly vascularized. Conn tissue is composed mainly of nonliving extacellular matrix that separates the cells of the tissue.
Structural Elem of Conn Tissue
Ground substance interstitial (tissue fluid)is the unstructured material that fills the space between the cells and contains the fibers that provide support.
Ground Substance
the unstructured material that fills the space between the cells and contains the fibers. Composed of interstitial (tissue) fluid, cell adhesion proteins (fibronectin, laminin, and others), & proteogylcans (wh/ glycosaminoglycans GAGs attach). Ground substance holds large abounts of fluid and functions a a molecular sieve, or medium through wh/ nutrients and other dissolved substances can diffuse betwwn blood capillaries & cells.
Fibers of connective tissue
collagen fiber: tough provides high tensile strength, elastic fibers: long, thin fibers that allow for stretch, reticular fibers: branched collageous fivers that form delicate networks
Fundamental cell types of major class conn tissue
Fibroblast: found in connective tissue proper. Chondroblasts: cartilage. Osteoblasts: bone. Hematopoietic stem cells: blood.If cell name has BLAST=immature cell. CYTE = mature cell
Types of Conn tissue
loose and dense the two subclasses of conn tissue proper
loose conn tissue
areolar, adipose (fat) or reticular conn tissue
areolar conn tissue
gel like matrix w/ collagen, elastic, & veticular fibers, wraps & cushions organs, widely distributed throughout body, holding body fluids, storing nutrients
adipose (fat) tissue
matrix similar to areolar w/ closely packed adipocytes, reserves food stores, insulate against heat loss, supports & protects, found under skin, around kidneys, abdomen & breasts, local fat deposits serve nutrient needs of highly active organs
reticular conn tissue
found in lymph nodes, bone marrow & spleen, lose ground substance w/ reticular cells & fibers forms a soft internal skeleton that supports other cell types
Dense Conn Tissue
regular and irregular
dense regular conn tissue
11 collagen fibers w/ a few elastic fibers. Major cell type is fibroblasts but poorly vascularized. Attaches muscles to bone or to other muscles, and bone to bone. Found in tendons & ligaments. Once the fiber are straightened out by a pulling force, there is no further give to the structure.
debse irregular conn tissue
irregularly arranged collagen fibers w/ some elastic fibers. Major cell type is fibroblasts. Withstands tension in many directions providing structural strength. Found in the dermis, submucosa of the digestive tract.
Cartilage
Able to w/stand both tension & compression. Lacks innervention & vascularization. 80% water. Collagen & elastic fibers, also GAGs (chondroitin sulfate & hydrocoloric acid). Chondroblasts are predominant cell type. lacks nerve fibers and is avascular. Hyaline cartilage, elastic cartilage, fibrocartilage
Hyaline Cartilage
Firm matrix w/ network of collagen fibers. Chondrocytes lie in lacunae. Supports, reinforces, cushions, and resists compression. Found in embryonic skeleton, the end of a long bones, nose, ribs, trachea & larynx.
Elastic Cartilage
Similar to hyaline cart. But w/ more elastic fibers. Maintains shape & structure while allowing flexibility. Supports external ear & epiglottis.
Fibro Cartilage
Matrix similar to hyaline cart but lwss firm w/ thick collagen fibers. Provides tensile strength & absorbs compression shock. Found in intervertebral discs, the pubic symhysis, & in discs of the knee joint
Conn Bone Tissue
(osseous tissue) has an exceptional ability to support and protect body structures due to its hardness, wh is determined by the add'l collagen fibers and calcium salts found in the extracellular matrix. Osteocytes are found in lacunae & are well vascularized. Supports, protects, & provides levers for muscular action. Stores calcium, minerals, & fat. Marrow inside obones is the site of hematopoiesis.
Conn Tissue blood
Red & white cells in plasma. Contained w/in blodd vessels. Functions int eh transport of respiratory gases, nutrients, & wastes. classified as a conn tissue & consists of blood cells & plasma
Covering & Lining Membranes
Cutaneous, Mucous, & serous membranes
Cutaneous membrane
skin is an organ system consisting of a keratinized squamous epithelium
Mucous membranes
line body cavities that open to the exterior
Serous membranes
consist of simple squamous epithelium resting on a thin layer of loose conn (areolar) tissue.
Nervous Tissue
Neurons & support cells. Transmits electrical signals (communicate) from sensory receptors to effectors. Found in the brain, spinal cord, & peripheral nerves. Main component of the nervous system, wh/ regulates and controls body functions. Nervous tissue is composed of 2 types of cells: neurons & supportive cells.
Muscle Tissue
Highly cellular, well vascularized tissues (w/ good blood supply). Muscle cells possess myofilaments (actin & myosin filaments) responsible for movement
3 types of muscular tissue
skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle, smooth muscle
Muscle Tissue: Skeletal
striated multinucleate cells. Movement under voluntary control.
Muscle Tissue: Cardiac
Striated, uninucleate cells w/ intercalated discs. Found in the walls of the heart - under involuntary control
Muscle Tissue: Smooth
Spindle shaped cells w/ no striations. Found in walls of hollow organs - under involuntary control