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106 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What are the 4 basic types of tissues?
1) Epithelial
2) Connective
3) Muscle
4) Nervous
How is epithelial tissue classified?
1) By # of cell layers
2) By cell shape
What are the 5 major characteristics of epithelial tissue?
1) Avascularity
2) Polarity
3) Cellularity
4) Attachment
5) Regeneration
Approximately how many types of cells are there in the human body?
200
What are the functions of epithelial tissue?
Protection, secretion, absorption, excretion, sensation, diffusion, reduce friction, cleaning
What type of epithelium is found where mechanical & chemical stresses are common?
Stratified squamous
Where would you find simple columnar epithelium?
Lining the small intestine
Where would you find keratinized stratified squamous epithelium?
On exposed body surfaces
What are the 4 types of membranes?
1) Mucous
2) Serous
3) Synovial
4) Cutaneous
What 3 things is the matrix of all CT made of?
1) Ground substance
2) Cells
3) Extracellular fibers
Name the cells that are present in CT Proper.
Fibroblasts, Adipocytes, Mast cells, Macrophages, Microphages, Lymphocytes, Mesenchymal cells, Melanocytes
What are the 3 types of CT fibers?
1) Collagen
2) Elastic
3) Reticular
Which cells coordinate the inflammatory response?
Mast cells (via histamine & heparin)
Name the 3 types of Loose CT.
1) Areolar
2) Adipose
3) Reticular
Name the 3 types of Dense CT.
1) Dense regular
2) Dense irregular
3) Elastic
What are the 2 types of Fluid CT?
1) Blood
2) Lymph
What are the 2 types of Supporting CT?
1) Bone
2) Cartilage
What are the functions of epithelial tissue?
1) Provide physical protection
2) Control permeability
3) Provide sensation
4) Produce specialized secretions (gland cells)
Polarity
Exposed (apical) & attached (basal) surfaces differ in structure & functions
Cellularity
Cells bound closely together @ cell junctions
Attachment
Base bound to basal lamina (basement membrane)
Avascularity
Lack blood vessels
Regeneration
Continuously replaced thru division of stem cells
Where is epithelial tissue found?
1) Covers every exposed surface of body
2) Forms surface of skin
3) Lines digestive, respiratory, reproductive, & urinary tracts
4) Lines all passageways to outside world
Structure of typical epithelium
1) Basal lamina attaches to underlying surface
2) Germinative (stem) cells replace short-lived epithelial cells
What are the 2 components of the basal lamina?
1) Lamina lucida (layer closer to epithelium)
2) Lamina densa (deeper layer)
Number of cell layers
1) Simple - one layer
2) Stratified - two or more layers
3) Pseudostratified - only one layer, but looks stratified
What are the specializations of epithelium?
1) Perform secretory functions
2) Perform transport functions
3) Maintain physical integrity
4) Ciliated epithelia move materials across their surface
What are cell adhesion molecules?
Transmembrane proteins that interconnect large areas of opposing cell membranes.
What are 3 factors that help epithelia maintain its integrity?
1) Intercellular connections
2) Attachment to the basal lamina
3) Epithelial maintenance & repair
Name the types of cell junctions.
1) Tight junction
2) Gap junction
3) Button desmosome
4) Hemidesmosome
Tight junction
Prevents diffusion of fluids & solutes between cells
Desmosomes
Button --> Ties adjacent cells together
Hemi --> Attaches epithelia to basal lamina
Found: areas that stretch & undergo tension (i.e. skin, heart, uterus)
Gap junction
Permits free diffusion of ions & small molecules from cell to cell.
Found: areas that require rapid intercellular communication (i.e. heart, smooth muscle, intestines)
What are the 2 types of glandular epithelia?
Exocrine glands
Endocrine glands
Exocrine glands
Discharge secretions onto the body surface or into ducts, which communicate with the exterior
Endocrine glands
Release hormones into surrounding interstitial fluid
What are the 3 modes of secretion?
1) Merocrine
2) Apocrine
3) Holocrine
Merocrine secretion
Product released through exocytosis (i.e. salivary gland)
Apocrine secretion
Involves loss of both product & cytoplasm (i.e. mammary gland)
Holocrine secretion
Cell bursts & releases secretion (i.e. sebaceous gland)
What are the 3 types of secretion?
1) Serous glands
2) Mucous glands
3) Mixed exocrine glands
Serous glands
Secrete watery solution that contains enzymes
Mucous glands
Secrete mucins that hydrate to form mucus
Mixed exocrine glands
1) More than one type of gland cell
2) May produce two different secretions (one serous, one mucous)
What are the functions of CT?
1) Establishing a structural framework
2) Transporting fluids and dissolved materials
3) Protecting delicate organs
4) Supporting, surrounding & interconnecting tissues
5) Storing energy reserves (fat)
6) Defending the body from microorganisms
Connective tissue contains...
1) Specialized cells
2) Matrix
Shape of apical surface cells
1) Squamous (thin & flat)
2) Cuboidal (box-shaped)
3) Columnar (tall, slender, rectangular)
What are the 3 basic types of CT?
1) Connective tissue proper
2) Fluid connective tissue
3) Supporting connective tissue
Connective Tissue Proper
1) Contains varied cell populations
2) Contains various fiber types
3) A syrupy ground substance
Fluid Connective Tissue
1) Contains a distinctive cell population
2) Watery ground substance w/dissolved proteins
3) Two types: blood & lymph
Supporting Connective Tissue
1) Less diverse cell population
2) Dense ground substance
3) Closely packed fibers
4) Two types: cartilage & bone
The functions of CT Proper cells
1) Fibroblasts (makes protein in form of fibers)
2) Macrophage (large cell that eats bacteria)
3) Adipocytes (for enery & padding)
4) Mesenchymal cells (stem cells not yet specialized)
5) Melanocytes (makes color)
6) Mast cells (coordinates inflammation)
7) Lymphocytes (produce antibodies)
8) Microphages (phagocytic blood cells that move to site of infection or injury in small numbers)
Blood
1) Formed elements & plasma (red blood cells, white blood cells, & platelets)
2) Arteries carry blood away from heart
3) Veins carry blood to heart
4) Capillaries allow diffusion into interstitial fluid
Lymph
Interstitial fluid entering the lymphatic vessels
Cartilage
1) Grows via interstitial & appositional growth
2) Matrix is a firm gel containing chondroitin sulfate
3) Cells called chondrocytes
4) Cells found in lacunae (small chambers)
5) Perichondrium separates cartilage from surrounding tissues
Interstitial growth
Chondrocytes undergo cell division, produce additional matrix, enlarge cartilage from within
Appositional growth
New layers of cartilage are added to the surface
Collagen fibers
1) Long, straight, unbranched
2) Most common fiber in CT Proper
3) Flexible, but very strong

(i.e. tendons & ligaments)
Reticular fibers
1) Thin, branching interwoven framework
2) Resist forces applied from many directions
3) Stabilizes positions of an organ's blood vessels, nerves, etc.
Elastic fibers
1) Contain elastin
2) Branched & wavy
3) Returns to original length after stretching
Name the 3 types of cartilage & where found.
1) Hyaline *most common type (
2) Elastic (nose, auricle of ear)
3) Fibrocartilage (intervertebral discs)
Bone
1) Has osteocytes
2) Osteocytes depend on diffusion thru canaliculi (little canals) for nutrients
3) Grows only by appositional growth
4) Little ground substance
5) Dense mineralized matrix
6) Surrounded by periosteum
Where are goblet cells found?
Trachea
Small & large intestines
Tendons and ligaments are composed primarily of which tissue?
Dense connective tissue
Simple squamous epithelium
Function: reduce friction, absorption, secretion
Found: lungs, heart, kidney tubules, blood vessels
Stratified squamous epithelium
Function: physical protection
Found: skin, lining of passageways to outside
Simple cuboidal epithelium
Function: limited protection, secretion, absorption
Found: kidney tubules, thyroid gland, ducts
Stratified cuboidal epithelium
(rare)
Function: protection, absorption, secretion
Found: mammary & sweat gland ducts
Transitional epithelium
Function: Permits expansion & recoil after stretching
Found: bladder
Simple columnar epithelium
Function: protection, absorption, secretion
Found: lining of stomach, intestines
Stratified columnar epithelium
(relatively rare)
Function: protection
Found: pharynx, anus, epiglottis
Pseudostratified columnar epithelium
Function: protection, secretion
Found: lining of nasal cavity, trachea
What is the major structural protein of the body?
Collagen
Serous membranes
Line body cavities that lack openings to the outside --> thoracic cavity
Synovial membranes
Line joint cavities --> knee joint
Cutaneous membrane
Another name for skin
Mucous membranes
Line body surfaces that lead to outside --> digestive tract
What is another name for visceral & parietal membranes?
Serous membrane
Most sweat glands are composed of ________ epithelial cells.
Cuboidal
What is the only gland which is both exocrine & endocrine?
Pancreas (secrete insulin & glucagon & produces pancreatic juice)
Histamine & heparin are two chemicals released after injury or infection by this type of cell found near blood vessels in connective tisse.
Mast cell
Dense regular connective tissue that attaches skeletal muscle to bone
Tendon
Dense regular connective tissue that attaches bone to bone
Ligament
Tendinous sheet that attaches a broad, flat muscle to another muscle or to several bones of the skeleton
Aponeurosis
________ is the pigment which gives blood its red color.
Hemoglobin
Plasma
Water matrix; 90% H2o
Leukocytes
Large, clear cells with obvious nuclei; immune response
Erythrocytes
Anucleate (without a nucleus); carry O2
Platelets
Function in clotting response
Capillaries
Smallest blood vessels in the body; composed of a single layer of squamous epithelium
Superficial fascia
Hypodermis; layer of areolar tissue and fat which separates the skin from underlying tissues & organs
Deep fascia
Dense irregular connective tissue that is resistant to forces applied from many directions
Subserous fascia
Layer of areolar tissue that lies between the deep fascia & the serous membranes that line the body cavities
What is the correct order of the layers of the body wall (from outside in)?
1) Cutaneous membrane
2) Superficial fascia
3) Deep fascia
4) Subserous fascia
5) Serous membrane
Which cavities in the body are lined by serous membranes?
1) Peritoneal
2) Pericardium
3) Pleural
Skeletal muscle
1) Striated
2) Voluntary
3) Multinucleate (only)
4) Divides via satellite cells (stem cells ready to differentiate into a muscle)
Cardiac muscle
1) Striated
2) Involuntary/Automatic
3) Intercalated discs
Found: only in heart
Smooth muscle
1) Non-striated
2) Involuntary
3) Can divide & regenerate
4) Spindle-shaped
5) Uninucleate
Found: intestinal tract
Nervous Tissue
1) Conducts electrical impulses
2) Conveys information from one area to another
2 types of nervous tissue cells
Neurons --> transmit information
Neuroglia --> support neural tissue; help supply nutrients to neurons
What are the 3 main components of nervous tissue?
1) cell body
2) dendrites (receive info)
3) axon (nerve fiber which carries info to other neurons)
Areolar tissue
1) Separates skin from deeper structures
2) "air" or "little space"
3) can distort w/out damage
4) fibers loosely organized
5) viscous ground substance
6) extensive blood supply
7) common injection site for drugs
Adipose tissue
Function: Provides padding & cushions shock, insulates (reduces heat loss), stores energy reserves
Found: deep to the skin, breast, buttocks, padding around eyeballs, kidneys
Loose connective tissue
1) "packing materials" of body
2) fill spaces between organs, cushion & stabilize specialized cells in many organs, & support epithelia
3) surround & support blood vessels & nerves, store lipids & provide route for diffusion of materials
Reticular tissue
Function: Provides supporting framework
Found: liver, kidney, spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow