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72 Cards in this Set

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When dealing with tissues what determines function??
Structure
What are the three Embryonic tissues?
Ectoderm, Mesoderm, Endoderm
Ectoderm gives rise to (or causes what to exsist?)
Nervous skin tissue and Epithelium
Mesoderm gives rise to?
Muscle and bone and mesothelium
an epithelium
Endoderm gives rise to??
digestive, respitory, reproductive, urinary, an d endothelium
what are the four animal tissue groups?
Epithelium,
Connective,
Muscle,
Nervous
Epithelial tissue functions
Protection, cover exposed surfaces, line cavities and hollow organs

Secretion, form glands and ducts of glands,

Transport, diffusion, filtration,osmosis and absorbtion
What are the two types of classification of epithelial tissues?
Simple and stratified
The classification for simple means?
Single layer of cells
Stratified
has many layers of epithelial cells, the bottom layer is attached to the basement membrane,top layer is free.
Name is based on the type of cells on the top layer?
Charachteristics of Epithelial tissues?
has a free surface, not attached to anything on one side..

attached to non living basement membrane on the other side
no blood vessals,
cells tightly packed together
no intracellular matrix
how is the basement membrane formed in epithelial tissues?
it is secreted by the epithelium and underlying connective tissues
Squamolucolumnss is what type of Cell?
Thin Flat Cells, so flat the nucules may form a bulge
Cuoidal are
Cube like cells
Columnar are
cells in collumns
Simple Squamous Epithelium
one layer of squamous cells, thin transparent
Function of simple squamous cells
osmosis, filtration, diffussion
locations of Simple Squamous
Forms serous membranes, that cover organs in closed cavities and line the closed cavities.

Alveloi of the lung--gas diffussion

lining of blood vessals, endothelium, nutrient waste and gas diffussion.
Simple Cuboidal Epithelium
ONe layer of cubelike cells,
Forms ducts of glands
Forms tubules of kidneys
Forms folicles of glands
The function and location of Simple cuboidal cells are
Absorbtion and secertion.

Thyroid gland, secretes thyroxine
Sebacous glands, secretes sebum
Kidney tubule reabsorbs glucose and ions and water.
The simple Columnar epithelium
one layer of rectangular cells
Whjich epithelial tissue do we know for the cell modifications to aid in function
Simple Columnar
Goblet cells
Secrete mucous..
Cillia
Moves debris along the mucociliary escalator

Found in respitory system
Microvilli
Highly folded plasma membrane increases surface area for absorbtion,
The function and location of simple columnar cells
secretion of mucous and enzymes absorbtion of nutrients,

Forms moucous membrane lining cavities open to the exterior (digestive. respitory, urinary , and reproductive linings.
digestive system primarily excretes enzymes and mucous and repitory primarily excretes mucous
Psuedostratified Cilliated columnar epithelium with goblet cells
One layer of cells with irregular sizes. cells may appearstratified but each cell is in contact with the basement membrane, Tissue always has goblet cells and cillia
tissue always has goblet cells and cillia
Function and location of the Psuedostratified cilliated collumnar epithelium with goblet cells
its function is--Mucociliary Escalator... It lines the trachea and bronchi, secretes sticky mucous to trap dirt, dust and bacteria to prevent respitory infections
Stratified Squamous Epithelium,
Multilayered tissue,
Only bottom layer in contact with basement membrane..
Only uppermost layer of cells are squamous withstands abrasions.
fuction of the squamous epithelium
secretion and protection
Location of the "NON KERATINIZED" Strratified squamous epithelium
has no keratin, usually moist withstands abrasions, lines the mouth, anus and vagina, lubricates and protects reduces friction and damage.
Location of the Keratinized stratified squamous eoithelium
Heavy deposits of the waxy protein keratin, waterproof, abrasion resistant
Stratified cuboidal epithelium
many layers of cells, uppermost cells are cuboidal, Rare tissue
Function and location of stratified cuboidal epithelium
Function, protection, scretion,
Location conjunctiva of the eye, also ducts of some sweat glands
stratified columnar epithelium
many layers of cells, uppermost cells are columnar rare tissue
Function of stratifed columnar epithelium
protection and secretion, lines the pharynx, lines the epiglottis
Transitional Epithelium
Mnay layers of cells, uppermost of the cells are cuboidal but puffy, rounded looking cells,
Functionm of the transitional Epithelium
adapted for stretching, when stretched cells look squamous

lines the bladder and ureters
what is the most abundant tissue on the body
Connective tissue
All connective tissues develop from embryonic tissue is called
Mesenchyme
Mesenchyme serves to?
replenish the supply of other types of connective tissue cells
The function of connective tissue (structural Tissue)
is to support, protect, energy storage, fight infection carry o2
Charachteristics of Connective tissue
Cewlls scattered and not touching, alot of matrix (which is not living) Alot of fibers, highly vascular, except cartilage, tendons and ligaments
Star shaped cell secretes fibers essential for wound healing. found in connective tissue
Fibroblasts
specialized for the synthesis and storage of fat and found in connective tissue
Adipocytes
Resident tissue phagocytes active in inflammantory reaction
found in connective tissue
Macrophages
specialized to secrete antibodies which fight infection
Plasma cells
derived from the basophil, a white blood cell, which secretes heparin and histamine which promotes inflamation
Mast Cells
Osteocytes
bone cells
What are chondrocytes?
Cartilage cells
Matrix
Non cellular material secreted by the living cells,
Gel
soft or hard, composed of GAGs (GLYCOSAMINOGLYCANS) which are polysachaRIDES, with amino acids, (chondroitin sulfate and hydraulic acid,) these substances also server as cell glue.
Hard
Hydroxyapatite CA3 PO4 compounds

cells found in connective tissue
Liquid
PLASMA OF BLOOD
Name 3 fibers found in connective tissue
Reticular, Collagen, and elastic
Very fine finbers difficult to stain,
Arranged in networks
Reticular
fibers composed of the protein collagen, tough and abundant, deposited in parallell bundles, provide strength
Collagen
Fibers composed of the protein elastin,
Wavy and interlaced, form networks, provide edlasticity
Elastic
What are two embryonic tissues?
Mesenchyme
Mucous
3 types of cartilages
Hyaline
elastic
fibrocartilage
loose connective tissues
areolar,
Adipose,
Reticular
Dense connective tissues name 3
Dense white fibrous
Elastic CT
Dense irregular Ct
Name 2 speciasl connective tissues
Bone and blood
pearly color, clear firm gel matrix, no noticeable fibers,
hyliane cartilage
holes in the gel, in which the CHONDROCYTE is located,
Lacuna
fibrous membranecovering cartilage
Perichondrium
Cartilage forming cell
Chondroblast
occurs on the surface
Chondroblasts in perichondrium, secrete matrix on the surface, become trapped in the lacuna and are then called Chondrocytes
appositional Growth,
Chrondrocytes in the lacuna deposit more gel onto the walls of the lacuna,
Interstitial
location of cartilages
ribs, trachea, LARYNX, NOSE, ARTICULAR, CARTILAGE ends of the long bones.
And MOST OF THE FETAL SKELETON
Elastic cartilage Structure
Likew hyline cartilage but more elastic, clear firm gel, chondroblast forms tissue, chondrocyte mature cell, elastic fibers, increase flexibility,
Location of elastic cartilage
epiglottis, pinna, audtory tube(eustachian) larnyx,