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127 Cards in this Set

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German whose family was paid to immigrate to colonies. Ran a printing business in NY. Charged for slander of royal govt. Andrew Hamilton defends him and he is found not guilty. Upholds freedom of the Press.
John Peter Zenger
Wrote 2 Treatises on Govt
John Locke
Urges Jefferson to take condemning of slavery out of Declaration of Independence so as not to offend. Heads committee which creates Albany Plan of Union.
Ben Franklin
Governor of VA. Opposed to slavery but owned slaves. Wrote the Declaration of Independence.
Thomas Jefferson
British general who sent young George Washington to Fort Necessity to spy on Fort Duquesne. Touches off French and Indian War.
General Edward Braddock
Prime Minister of England directly after Revolutionary War. Was governor in New World directly after French and Indian War.
William Pitt
Wrote a pamphlet on how if we're not represented in Parliament, couldn't be taxed for the purpose of representation. "No taxation without representation"
James Otis
Used new tax policies to pay for English debts from French/Indian War. Begins enforcing some ignored policies in the the colonies. Prime Minister in 1763.
George Grenville
Terrorist group started by Isaac Sears. Outdoor meetings and demonstrations. Began in Connecticut but spread through the colonies.
Sons of Liberty
1767, becomes Chancellor of the Exchequer. Legalized writs of assistance, introduced taxes on glass, lead, paint, and tea. Smugglers must be tried in admiralty court where presumed guilty until proven innocent.
Charles Townshend
Prime Minister who meets some of the colonists' demands.
Lord North
Marched on the Governor's Mansion to protest the impending Stamp Act in 1766.
Liberty Boys
Located in Peru. Excellent roads, Cuzco is the capitol. Conguered by Pizarro.
Incans
Early South American culture. Talent for calendars and mathematics.
Mayans
Originally northern invaders (Chichimec) who take name of their homeland. Capitol at Tenochtitlan. Conquered by Cortes.
Aztecs
First people to build civilization in America. Made giant basalt heads.
Olmec
System of rewarding conquistadors. Spaniard is made lord over a group of indian villages and is supposed to protect them and convert them to Christianity.
Encomiendas
European born Spaniards in Spanish Colonies.
Peninsulars
People with one white and one indian parent.
Mestizo
Spanish struggle to kick Muslims out of the Iberian Peninsula.
Reconquista
Spanish notice to New World natives that they must accept the rule of the Spanish crown and embrace Christianity.
Requirimiento
Peninsula compromising Spain and Portugal
Iberia
People born in the colonies to Spanish parents.
Creoles
Aztec capitol which was destroyed in the final battle with Cortes. Modern day Mexico City.
Tenochtitlan
South American general. Won independence for Bolivia, Panama, Columbia, Ecuador, Peru, and Venezuala. Known as 'El Liberator'.
Simon Bolivar
Leader of Haitin revolution, self-educated freed slave.
Toussaint L'Ouverture
South American revolutionary leader, joins revolution against Spain in his native Argentina. Liberated Chile and captured Lima (Peru).
Jose de San Martin
French general who involved Europe in a series of wars.
Napolean
Five Iroquois tribes in NY: Seneca, Cayuga, Onondaga, Oneida, and Mohawk.
Iroquois Nation
Drew the line of Demarcation and gave New World to Ferdinand and Isabella.
Pope Alexander VI
German who started the Protestant Reformation in 1517. Criticizes the church for its corruption.
Martin Luther
Spanish King and Queen who organize the Inquisition, complete the Reconquista, and begins the exploration of the New World.
Ferdinand and Isabella
Man who 'discovers' the New World for Spain.
Christopher Columbus
Spanish term for conquerers.
Conquistadors
Explores S. America's west coast and conquers the Inca in Peru.
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish conquistador who travels to Florida looking for the Cities of Gold. Explores much South Easter US. Dies before his mission returns home.
Gernando de Soto
Spaniard who conquers the Aztecs.
Hernando Cortes
People who want to rid the church of Catholic influences. Believe church congregations have the right to elect their own ministers. Winthrop and others form Mass. Bay Colony.
Puritans
Puritan sect, flee to Holland and then take Mayflower to found Plymouth Colony.
Pilgrims
Sent by Francis to explore N. America. Maps St. Lawrence River.
Jacques Cartier
Pacifists who believe everyone has an 'inner light' from God. Object to all political and religious authority. Don't like paying taxes.
Quakers
Englishman who obtains permission from Queen Elizabeth to colonize America. 1585- founds colony called Roanoke.
Sir Walter Raleigh
Succeeds Ferdinand and Isabella. Sends an armada against England in 1588. Wants to expunge all Protestantism.
Phillip II
Royal Geographer hired by French merchants to colonize North America. Helps establish Acadia (Nova Scotia) and founds Quebec (capitol of New France).
Samuel de Champlain
Sent by Francis I to map N. American coastline and find the Northwest Passage. Maps NC to Newfoundland.
Giovanni de Verrazano
English pirate turned explorer. Second circumnavigation in the world for Elizabeth I. Raids and harasses Spanish ships.
Sir Francis Drake
A fur trader who follows the Mississippi River as far south as Arkansas.
Luis Joliet
A Jesuit priest who follows Mississippi River as far South as Arkansas.
Jacques Marquette
First European to follow the Mississippi River all the way to the Gulf of Mexico.
Rene-Robert Cavalier de La Salle
English navigator hired by the Dutch East India Company to find Northwest Passage. Finds a wide river and beautiful river valley, region is claimed as New Netherland.
Henry Hudson
Governor of Roanoke who goes back to England for supplies and returns to find his colony MIA.
Captain John White
French King who sends many explorers. Cartier, de Champlain, Verrazano.
Francis I
First European child born in the New World.
Virginia Dare
Strict separatist who is exiled from Mass. and founds Providence. Believes that land belongs to the indians and that Puritans are corrupting themselves by remaining in the Anglican Church.
Roger Williams
Puritan in Boston who claims that God has spoken to her directly (against Puritan belief that God speaks only through the Bible), telling her which ministers are Elect and which are not. Convicted of Heresy, founds Portsmouth.
Anne Hutchinson
Author of "A Model of Christian Charity". Wealthy attorney and stockholder in Mass. Bay Company, thinks America is a great place for a refuge for Puritans. Won't let people read the charter and pretends only he can make laws, people realizes he is lying to them and make the General Court (representative assembly).
John Winthrop
Captain who emerges as Jamestown's strongest leader. Trades with the Powhatan during winter 1607.
Captain John Smith
Well to do planter who organizes back country farmer's rebellion and burns Jamestown.
Nathaniel Bacon
Wrote 'Of Plymouth Plantation'. One of Plymouth's leaders.
William Bradford
Wrote 'Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God'. Mass. preacher during Great Awakening. 'Born again' christian.
Jonathan Edwards
First person killed in Boston Massacre, black/indian mix.
Crispus Attucks
With James Otis, drafts a circular letter for Mass. assembly about the Townshend Acts. Very active in the Sons of Liberty.
Samuel Adams
Tried by vice- admiralty court for smuggling molasses from French colonies in the Caribbean. Defended by John Adams.
John Hancock
General in British army who is appointed as Governor of Mass. to enforce the Coercive Acts. Leads Brits in Lexington and Concord and at Bunker Hill.
General Thomas Gage
German mercenaries hired by the British during the Revolutionary War. Attacked by Washington at Trenton.
Hessians
Prussian General who helps Continental Army at Valley Forge. Improves discipline of army, reorganizes, and prepares a manual of tactics.
Baron von Steuben
French officer at Valley Forge who helps to improve discipline and morale.
Marquis de Lafayette
Leader of Green Mountain Boys of Vermont. Storms and captures Fort Ticonderoga, first successful offensive action by the colonists during the American Revolution.
Ethan Allen
Burgoyne surrenders to him at Saratoga. Ends up a traitor.
Benedict Arnold
Publishes anti-George III pamphlet.
Thomas Paine
Part of Communication Committee. Warns Lexington that Gage is coming.
Paul Revere.
King during the Revolutionary War. Decides that concessions make the situation worse, creates Coercive Acts and refuses to look at the Olive Branch Petition.
George III
British General in charge of the South. In command of Charles Town (Patriots' greatest defeat).
Charles Cornwallis
Organizes small units to carry out hit and run raids on the British camps and supply wagons in Western NC.
Nathaniel Greene
'Swamp Fox'. Leads the most famous western NC unit.
Francis Marion
Called for by Pope Urban II. Changes Western society through contact with the Muslim world.
Holy Crusades
Intellectual Revolution from 1350- 1600. Triggers scientific revolution. Rebirth of the cultures of ancient Rome and Greece.
Renaissance
A move away from Catholic/ Anglican traditions. More personal relationship with God. Bible is translated into common languages. Martin Luther begins it.
Reformation
Spain and Portugal's solution to debate over rights to control lands in New World. Line of Demarcation is drawn.
Treaty of Tordesillas
Mythical route from Atlantic to Pacific in the middle of North America.
Northwest Passage
Government and council approved by the king run this place. Colonists who move there won't get an elected assembly.
Quebec Act
One description of Mass. Bay colonies from one of Winthrop's sermons.
A City Upon a Hill
This company's costly wars with India and corrupt management lead to much debts and 17 million pounds of sad and lonely tea.
British East India Company
First Written Constitution in the American Colonies. Suffrage for all adult men.
Fundamental Order of Connecticut
Backcountry farmers burn Jamestown and attack Native Americans.
Bacon's Rebellion
The Assembly in VA.
House of Burgesses
41 men sign this declaring their intention to creat a government and obey its laws.
Mayflower Compact
Journey of slaves across the Atlantic.
Middle Passage
Stressed dependence on God and gained wide appeal among farmers, workers, and the enslaved. Revivals. Brings religion to the South.
Great Awakening
By Jonathan Edwards, very scary sermon. Part of the Great Awakening.
Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God
Connecticut vs. the natives. Whites and other natives so cruel that this group must be resettled on reservations.
Pequot War
Wampanoag leader Metacomet. Settlers win this war which is a turning point in New England.
King Phillip's War
Theory that a state's power depends on its wealth.
Mercantilism
William and Mary are invited to take the throne by Parliament. James II flees. Bloodless exchange of power.
Glorious Revolution
People into a contract with their government, have certain natural rights (life liberty property), if the govt violates these rights, people have the right to overthrow monarch and change their system of govt.
Social Contract Theory
Written by John Locke. where a monarch gets his right to rule (the people).
2 Treatises on Government
Written by Ben Franklin. Includes advice for the common man.
Poor Richard's Almanac
War over Austrian succession between England and France. Turns in to the French and Indian War in the colonies.
King George's War
War between French, and colonists, debts caused to England necessitate higher taxes. Ended by the Treaty of Paris of 1763.
French and Indian War
Ends the French and Indian War. Eliminates French power in the New World and gives New Orleans to Spain.
Treaty of Paris of 1763
Legalized by the Revenue Act to aid in arresting smugglers. General search warrants enabling customs officials to enter any location to look for evidence of smuggling.
Writs of Assistance
American Revenue Act of 1764, introduced by Grenville. Taxes on raw sugar and molasses imported from other colonies as well as on silk, wine, coffee, pimento, and indigo.
Sugar Act
Direct Tax requested by Grenville in 1765. Taxes most printed materials.
Stamp Act
Forces the colonies to pay for their own defense. Colonists must supply barracks for soldiers.
Quartering Act
1660- All goods into and out of colonies must be carried on British ships manned by a crew of 3/4 Brits. Sugar, tobacco, lumber, cotton, wool and indigo can only be sold to Britain and British colonies.
Navigation Acts
Refunds 4/5 of the the taxes on tea in hopes of selling some ammount of BEIC's mountains of tea.
Tea Act
December 1773, 150 men dump the tea shipped to Boston into the Harbor.
Boston Tea Party
4 new laws intended to punish Mass. 1) shuts down port of Boston, 2) All Mass elected officials are appointed by the Governor instead of elected and town meetings are banned, 3) Allows governor to transfer trials of British soldiers and officers to Britain to protect them from American juries, and 4) local officials must provide housing for troops. Gage is appointed as new Mass. Governor.
Coercive Acts
Gage is ordered to arrest the Mass. Provincial Congress, can't find them, so attacks these places to take the supply depot.
Lexington and Concord
Brits try to leave Boston, colonists take the hill and fire when they can see the 'whites of their eyes.' Brits retreat to Boston. Demonstrates that colonists can beat one of the best armies in the world.
Battle of Bunker Hill
Thomas Paine's inflammatory pamphlet attacking George III instead of Parliament.
Common Sense
Burgoyne surrender to Benedict Arnold here. Turning point in the war, improves American morale and convinces the French to send troops to help.
Saratoga
Fought in 1776 between patriots and loyalists in NC. Patriots win, showing Brits overstimate loyalist support in the south.
Battle of Moore's Creek Bridge
Written by Thomas Jefferson. Committee includes John Adams, Ben Franklin, Roger Sherman, Robert Livingston. Issued July 4, 1776.
Declaration of Independence
Britain recognizes the US as a new nation with Mississippi River as its western border. Britain gives Florida back to Spain. This does not end enmity between England and US.
Treaty of Paris of 1783
1692 in Mass, 20 people killed. After it is over, accusers admit they made it all up.
Salem Witchcraft Trials
Each colony is technically governed by British laws, but actually governed by laws created by local colonial governments.
Salutary Neglect
1766, asserts that Parliament has the power to make laws for the colonies.
Declaratory Act
March 5, 1770 in Boston. No one order open fire but colonists die and stories spread rapidly around all colonies.
Boston Massacre
Spanish Armada
1588
Jamestown is founded.
1607
First slaves in Jamestown.
1619
1754 scheme developed by a committee led by Ben Franklin. Proposes that colonies unite to form a federal govt. This is rejected by the colonies, but sets a precedent.
Albany Plan of Union
Creates 'Holy Experiment'. Signs Treaty of Shackamaxon. King owes his father money and so gives him land in the New World.
William Penn
George III issues this saying colonists can't settle west of a line through the Appalachian mountains (without British government's approval).
Royal Proclamation of 1763
In response to the suspension of the Mass. Assembly, write the Declaration of Rights and Grievances. Express loyalty to the king but condemn the Coercive Acts. Announces non-Importation Association.
1st Continental Congress
Three weeks after Lexington and Concord. Issue is defense. Adopts militia surrounding Boston and names them the Continental Army. Appoints George Washington as Commander in Chief. John Hancock is president.
2nd Continental Congress