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100 Cards in this Set

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The thorax constitutes the _________ part of the body or trunk
upper
bounded by the upper part of the sternum, the first ribs, and the body of first thoracic vertebra, gives access to the root of the neck and is not closed off by any bony or muscular structure.
superior thoracic aperture
Anteriorly, part of the thoracic wall is the ______, which unites pairs of ribs from both sides.
sternum
_________ is a dome-shape floor and extends superiorly into the thoracic cavity thus provides space that accommodates some of the abdominal organs underneath it.
diaphragm
Most of the thoracic cavity is occupied by the
two lungs
enclosed by its pleura (see below), and the mediastinum which contains the heart.
lungs
important function of the bony thorax
is that it serves as the expansive and hard walls of a bellows-like chamber
protects heart and great vessels, lungs, etc.
Thoracic cage
provides attachment for intrinsic muscles of the chest as well as extrinsic muscles of the upper limb and the head and neck
Thoracic cage
How many Thoracic vertebrae?
12
______ pairs are attached to the sternum directly and are called true or sternal ribs, while ______ pairs are not and are called false or asternal ribs.
Seven, five
The ______ of the ribs has two articular surfaces or facets
head
The neck of the rib
an eminence on the rib's posterior surface between the neck and the body. . It has both articular and non-articular portions.
Tubercle
Tubercle articulates with a _____ on the transverse process of the lower of the two vertebrae to which the ________ ______ articulates (i.e., same number).
fovea, rib head
the long, curved, thin and flat portion of the rib has an external surface and an internal surface
shaft or body of rib
The ____ _____ is the depression on the lower inner surface of the rib for the intercostal vein, artery, and nerve. Its distal end (sternal end) is cupped
costal groove
Sternum consists of three parts:
(1) the manubrium; (2) the body of the sternum; and (3) the small, xiphoid process.
Manubrium has named notches:
Jugular notch (also termed suprasternal notch); Clavicular notch, for articulation with clavicle; Costal notch, for articulation with costal cartilage of first rib.
manubrium articulates with the body of the sternum at the ____ ____, which is useful in locating the position of the second rib
sternal angle
dagger-like in shape, it is widest at its lower end; , it provides surfaces for the attachment of various costal cartilages; Second through seventh costal cartilages, thus 7 true or sternal ribs
Body
articulates with the sternal body. It is cartilaginous in youth and ossifies first at its proximal portion in the adult.
Xiphoid process
space between the two ribs
Intercostal spaces
each spans between one rib and the next down thus occupy each intercostal space
Intercostal muscles
begins just lateral to costovertebral joint and extends anteriorly up to costochondrial junction (where the bony rib becomes cartilage)
External intercostal muscles
Muscle fibers slant downward and forward, same as the external oblique abdominis
External intercostal muscles
begins at the sternum and extends posteriorly up to the costal angle and becomes internal intercostal membrane,
Internal intercostal muscles
their muscle fibers slant downward and backward, nearly perpendicular to those of the external intercostal muscles.
Internal intercostal muscles
internal to internal intercostal muscles, each of these muscles occupies the middle part of the length of the intercostal space.
Innermost intercostal muscles
muscle fibers slant the same way as those of the internal intercostal muscles, making it difficult to separate these two layers.
Innermost intercostal muscles
lying in the same layer as the innermost intercostal muscles but are found only in the anterior part of the wall. From the internal surface of the lower sternum, the muscles fan out to the costal cartilages spanning more than one intercostal space, up to three
Transversus thoracis
lying in the same layer as the innermost intercostal muscles and are found only in the posterior part of the wall. Muscle fibers span two intercostal spaces.
Subcostal muscles
deep fascia invests intercostal muscles externally as well as internally
Investing fascia
Intercostal nerves are found in the _____ along with the _______ _______ & _______
plane between the internal and innermost intercostal muscles (b/w 2nd & 3rd layers of the wall); intercostal arteries & veins
(near Latissimus Dorsi, External Abdominal Oblique and Serratus Anterior mm) emerge at the mid axillary line and divide into anterior and posterior branches
Lateral Cutaneous Nerves
nerves emerge from the lateral border of the sternum and give off medial and lateral branches
Anterior Cutaneous
Posterior Intercostal aa emanate from the
Aorta
emanate from the internal thoracic a., a pair of longitudinal artery from subclavian artery.
Anterior Intercostal aa (much shorter)
Terminal brs. of the internal thoracic a. are the ____ _____ (which will give rise to the lower intercostal aa) and the ____ ____ ____ passes on to the abdomen.
musculophrenic artery; superior epigastric artery
Thoracic cavity is occupied by____ membranous blind sacks
three
three membranous blind sacks of Thoracic cavity
rith & left pleural sacks (each accommodates lung) and the pericardial sack (which invaginates the heart)
The median area between the right and left pleural sacks is the_______.
mediastinum
The_______ is occupied by the third balloon, the pericardial sack which the heart invaginates.
mediastinum
Two portions of teh pleural sack are
parietal & viceral
outer layer of the pleural sack (balloon).
parietal
None
This layer is pushed against the internal aspect of the thoracic wall thus line the cavity
visceral
None
The parietal pleura is affixed to the inner surface of the thoracic cage by a loose connective tissue called _____ fascia.
endothoracic
invaginated (pushed inward) portion of the pleural sack tightly covering the invaginating lung (the fist).
Visceral pleura
The space between the visceral and parietal pleura (the inside of the invaginated balloon) is the
pleural cavity (There is nothing (not even air) in this space other than a small amount of serous fluid that lubricates the inner surface of the cavity)
remain continuous with one another at the root of the lung (the wrist of the fist that is pushed in to the balloon)
Parietal and visceral
Which pleura (lining the thoracic cage) follows the inner surface of the thoracic cavity
Parietal pleura (lining the thoracic cage)
The portion of the pleura lining the rib cage is called the ______
costal pleura
the pleura covering the diaphragm is called the _______ ______
diaphragmatic pleura
the pleura in contact with pericardial sack is called the ____ ____
mediastinal pleura
the dome-shaped superior part that technically plugs the thoracic aperture is celled the
cupula
The line of reflection of the parietal pleura from the costal to diaphragmatic part is referred to as the
costodiaphragmatic recess
line of reflection of the parietal pleura from the costal to mediastinal part is called the
costomediastinal recess
the area between the right and left pleural sacks
mediastinum
Each lung has the following:
costal, mediastinal and diaphragmatic surfaces; Two margins; Apex; Fissures; Lobes; Ten bronchopulmonary segments in each lung; Root of the lung; Pulmonary aa. vv.
Three surfaces of the lung:
costal, mediastinal and diaphragmatic surfaces
Two margins of the lung:
a relatively sharp anterior margin and a round posterior margin
extends into the root of the neck of the lung. Anteriorly, it protrudes approximately one inch above the level of the clavicle. Posteriorly, it remains below the level of the first rib.
apex
Fissures of the lung
aRight lung - an oblique and a horizontal fissure, forming three lobes. b)Left lung - an oblique fissure only, forming two lobes.
None
The fissures [do/do not] completely subdivide the lungs.
do not; Near the hilar area there is continuity of lung tissue between lobes.
Lobes of the lung
a) Right lunga) Right lung: 3 lobes – superior, middle and inferior b) Left lung: 2 lobes – superior and inferior. below the cardiac notch is the lingula
None
is the smallest unit of the lung at the gross level and can be removed in the event of cancer or TB without seriously disturbing the rest of the lung.
Ten bronchopulmonary segments in each lung
this is the wrist of the fist in the model and in real it is where arteries and veins come in and go out and the primary bronchus enters the lung.
Root of the lung
mouth aka
oral cavity
Nose aka
nasal cavity
In the______, respiratory flow and alimentary flow cross.
pharynx
During the________ action, at one point, the respiratory channels is completely blocked from the alimentary channel.
swallowing
allows for vocalization
Larynx
below the inferior border of the larynx; a tube composed of cartilaginous rings, C-shaped rings with a muscle in the back.
Trachea
Trachea ends by bifurcating into
left and right primary bronchi (The right bronchus is straighter than the left.)
each primary bronchus, once in the lung, divides into lobar bronchi, which then further divide into segmental bronchi. 10 Bronchopulmonary segments in each lung.
Bronchi
Thoracic portions of Respiratory System function to
exchange gases
Pathway of cartilaginous airways
Trachea -> Primary Bronchi -> Secondary (lober) Bronchi -> Tertiary (segmental) Bronchi-> Bronchioles (no cartilage) -> Alveoli (only site of gas exchange).
Pulmonary vessels branch with airways and enter lungs at the
root (a.k.a. the Hilus)
Lung Innervation provided by
Vagus Nerve (10th Cranial Nerve) and Sympathetic Nerves
Diaphragm contracts (it lowers like a piston pulled in syringe) to increase the volume of pleural cavities.
Resting Inspiration
Utilizes Diaphragm plus rib cage (bellows) to greatly increase volume
Forced Inspiration
Diaphragm relaxes (it rises) and the volume decreases.
Passive Expiration
Contraction of abdominal mm pulls rib cage down quickly
Active (Forced) Expiration
if the alveoli become inflamed and flooded with fluid for various causes (e.g. Pneumonia).
Gas Exchange at the alveoli may be disturbed
the mediastinum, and is divided into four regions
superior, anterior, middle, and posterior portions.
Mediastinum Superiorly -
the heart is suspended in the rib cage by the great vessels.
Mediastinum Anteriorly
the heart is related to: -part of the thymus & sternum
Mediastinum Anterolaterally, laterally, posterolaterally
the heart is related to the lung and its pleura
Mediastinum Inferiorly
the diaphragmatic portion of the pericardium is firmly fused with the central tendon of the diaphragm, with the inferior vena cava penetrating it on the right side.
Mediastinum Posteriorly
the heart is related to: a)part of the right lung; b)part of the left lung; c) the esophagus; d) the aorta
From the embryonic tube-like heart it becomes highly twisted upon itself and soon, from the original single passage, 4 chambers evolve. They are:
Ho Heart & Pleural cavity drawing
a small space filled with fluid for lubrication during heart contraction.
Pericardial cavity
The heart is suspended, at its base, by
the great vessels
It occupies an asymmetrical position, with its apex pointing anteriorly, inferiorly and towards the left.
Heart