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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
presentation of lactic acidosis, neurological symptoms, increased alanine
pyruvate dehygroenase deficiency

(prominent neurological defects)
medullary sponge kidney can be seen how on x-ray, associated with what
calcifications of medullary pyramids

associated with hyperparathyroidism,
UVJ common place for what to get caught
renal stones
which kidnfey is taken during renal transplantation, why?
left, because it has a longer renal vein
plasma volume measured by?
extracellular volume measured by?
plasma volume- by radiolabeled albumin

extracellular volume- by inulin
Plasma osmolality equation
2X [Na+] + [glucose]/18 + [BUN]/2.8
site of secretion of organic anions and cations, what is driving force for each
Proximal convuluted tubule

anions driven by alpha-ketoglutarate secretion and reabsorption on plasma intersitium side

cation secretion driven by 3Na/2K+ transporter on interstitial side
segment responsible for diluting urine
thik ascending loop
how is bicarb reabsorbed in lumen
H+ secreted into lumen
how are phosphate, AAs, lactose, glucose all reabsorbed?
with Na cotrnasporter in PCT

know relative concentration graph p 462
what specific substances are absorbed/secreted in 1st part of PCT? 2nd part? 3rd part?
1st- bicarb reabsorption with Na/H+ exchanger in lumen and carbonic anhydrase

2nd- cl- reasbsorption with Na/K ATPase and passive follow

3rd- organic anion (using alphaketoglutarate) and cation secretion
Calcium is reabsorbed under influence of PTH in what part of nephron?
early Distal Convoluted Tubule
2 types of intercalated cells
A (secrete H+, A for acid)

B (secrete HC03, B for base)
what is aldosterone effect on intercalated cells?

what diuretics work on principle cells?

what diuretics inhibit aldosterone binding?
increases H+ secretion (A type), rest of effects on principle cells

K+ sparing diuretics (because principle cells secrete K+)

only spironolactone and eplerenone
ethacrynic acid used when?
as loop duretic when allergic to sulfonamides
Furosemide side effects

allergy (sulfa)
Nephrotoxic (interstitial)
Gout (hyperuricemia)
2 drugs that can cause a contraction metabolic alkalosis
HCTZ, loops
digoxin vs digitoxin maintenance is renal insufficiency
must decrease digoxin dose (because excreted renally)
hyperosmolarity does causes hypokalemia/hyperkalemia?


heart failure?
renal failure?
hyperosmolarity- hyperkalemia (both up)

digitalis- hyperkalemia (can't pump back into cell)

heart and renal failure cause hypokalemia (because on many diuretics)
what is most common cause of death in SLE?
SLE nephropathy

diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (diffuse like SLE, has wire looping and granular appearance)
Nephritic syndromes:
mesangial deposits
Split Basement Membrane
lumpy-bumpy - poststreptococcal
subendothelial- diffuse proliferative (due to SLE)
mesangial deposits- IgA nephropathy (after URI, gastroenteritis. can also present as H-S purpura)
split basement membrane- Alport's
nerve disorders, deafness, ocular problems, nephritis
(can't see, can't pee, can't hear)


type 4 collagen
what is SLE's nephritis presentation? nephrotic presentation?
nephritic- diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis

nephrotic- MEMBRANOUS glomerulonphritis (spike and dome subepithelial deposits, can have deposits in subepithelium, subendothelial, mesangial)

(SLE can also cause MPGN type 1, but Hep B more common)
minimal change disease has selective loss of
4 nephritic/nephrotic conditions associated with expansion of mesangium
IgA glomerulopathy

Membranous glomerulonephritis

Diabetic glomerulonephropathy

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephropathy
2 glomerular structure changes seen in glomerulonephropathy?

why does GFR increase?
increased Mesangium

thickened BM (from nonenzymatic glycosylation)

GFR increases because of nonenzymatic glycosylation of efferent arteriole

diabetic glomerulonephropathy IS NOT focal segmental glomerulosclerosis!
glomerular sclerosis and hyalinosis seen in what patient population?
focal segmental glomerulosclerosis

seen in HIV PATIENTS (not diabetics)
4 nephropathies with granular appearance on IF
membranous glomerulonephritis
(SLE nephrotic and tumors, infections, etc)

diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (SLE nepritis and other causes)

postreptococcal glomerulonephritis

Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis
which nephropathy tied to Hep B? other associations?
Membranoproliferative glomerulonephropthy type 1

"tram tacking"

Hep C, SLE, bacterial endocarditis, cryoglobulinemia
3 nephropathies that cause hypocomplementemia
lupus nephritis
MPGN type II
poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
immune complex deposition with diffuse capillary thickening
membranous glomerulonephritis
granular pattern of immune complex deposition, hypercellular glomeruli
acute poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis
epithelial cell casts
renal tubular damage
fatty casts seen in
nephrotic syndrome
causes of calcium stones in kidney? (both particles)
can be from calcium phosphate or calcium oxalate

calcium, cancer, high parathyroid activity, high vitamin D

oxalate- high vitamin C intake, ethylene glycol
treat what 2 kidney stones with alkalinization?
uric acid

what kidney tumor has embryologic glomerular structures
Wilm's tumor
smoking is biggest risk factor for what two abdominal tumors
Renal Cell Carcinoma
Transitional Cell Carcinoma
thyroidization of kidney occurs in what disease?
chronic pyelonephritis

(because eosinophilic casts build up in tubules and distend them to look like colloid follicles
can present with blunting of calices and eosinophilic casts
chronic pyelonephritis
Acute Tubular necrosis causes:
3 drugs
1 doctor caused
1 breakdown
aminoglycosides, cephalosporins, polymixins

IV contrast

acetaminophen can cause what type of kidney damage
renal papillary necrosis
2 most common causes chronic renal failure
HTN and diabetes
3 substances highly raised in chronic renal failure
hyperkalemia (most common cause of death in chronic kidney disease- arrhythmias from this)


TGs (can cause pancreatits)
on sonogram, bilateral enlarged echogenic kidneys, absent or small bladder is what?
Autosomal recessive polycystic kidney disease
transitional cell carcinoma risk factors
what chromosomal abnormality predisposes neonate to erythrocytosis at birth?
Down syndrome
what do eosinophils use to kill parasites?
major basic protein
(this also damages bronchial epithelium in atopic asthma)
what are the A cells in joints?
the macrophages of the joints