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58 Cards in this Set

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Praetorianism
tendency for military takeovers; repeated military coups
WTO
an international organization designed to supervise and liberalize international trade; deals with the rules of trade between nations at a near-global level; it is responsible for negotiating and implementing new trade agreements, and is in charge of policing member countries' adherence to all the WTO agreements, signed by the bulk of the world's trading nations and ratified in their parliaments
NIC
improving democratic records; active, effective, and protected opposition; advanced techonology; high to medium rationg on Freedom House and HDI; relatively high quality of life; examples: Mexico, India, Argentina
Multiple Societies
huh? Hayashida
Patron-Client Relations (Clientalism)
an unofficial system of a political organization based on patronage, the spoils system, "behind-the-scenes" control, and longstanding political ties within the structure of a representative democracy. Machines sometimes have a boss, and always have a long-term corps of dedicated workers who depend on the patronage generated by government contracts and jobs.
Dependency Theory
worldview which suggests that poor underdeveloped states of the periphery are exploited by wealthy developed nations of the centre, in order to sustain economic growth and remain wealthy
NEC
huh?
IMF
oversees the global financial system by observing exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering financial and technical assistance
World Bank
activities are focused on the reduction of global poverty, focusing on the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), goals calling for the elimination of poverty and the implementation of sustainable development
Globalization
increasing global connectivity, integration and interdependence in the economic, social, technological, cultural, political, and ecological spheres
corporatism
direct participation of interest groups in politics
camarilla
In Mexico and elsewhere in Latin America, a politician’s personal following in a patron-client relationship
Benito Juarez
served 5 terms as president of Mexico; esisting the French occupation, overthrowing the Empire, and restoring the Republic, as well as his efforts to modernize the country
Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI)
was the ruling party in Mexico for 70 years; now is the primary opposition
Constitution of 1917
adopts US structure under Carranza
power of the Church severely limited
National Action Party (PAN)
conservative and Christian Democratic party; President from PAN has been in power since 2000; does not have a majority in congress and must form coalitions
mestizo
Spanish origin used to designate people of mixed European and indigenous non-European ancestry
Party of the Democratic Revolution (PRD)
ranks third in major parties in Mexico; claims election fraud in the 2006 election which saw Obrador lose to Calderon by a slim margin
maquiladora
factory that imports materials and equipment on a duty-free and tariff-free basis for assembly or manufacturing and then re-exports the assembled product; used to refer to Mexican factories on the U.S.-Mexico border
North American Free Trade Agreement(NAFTA)
trade bloc between Canada, U.S., Mexico; has resulted in the elimination of the majority of tariffs
PEMEX
Mexico's state-owned, nationalized petroleum company; govt's major source of revenue
sexenio
name for the single 6-year term that Mexico's President serves for; MAY NOT RUN FOR REELECTION
Lazaro Cardenas
one of the founders of PNR, later PRI; served as President; nationalization of U.S.-owned oil industries into PEMEX; redistributed land amongst peasants and workers
criollos
a person born in the Spanish colonies and of pure blood
caudillo
a political-military leader at the head of an authoritarian power; exemplified by Santa Anna
Cuautemoc Cardenas
founder of PRD; son of President Cardenas; ran for Presisdent in 1988 and lost in what many people saw as rigged elections
Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador
lost 2006 election in a very close vote; represented PDR; claimed election as fraud and recognizes himself as the head of govt
Zapatista National Liberation Front
armed revolutionary group based in Chiapas, one of the poorest states of Mexico; opposes globalization saying that it has hurt peasants
Vincente Fox
elected in 2000; historic b/c he's the first president in 70 years not from PRI; oversaw a period of economic stablility
Chamber of Deputies
lower house of Mexico's legislature; currently 500 deputies chosen through a mix of plurality voting from single-member districts and proportional representation
machismo
prominently exhibited or excessive masculinity; used by Mexican politicians to gain mass support
Ernesto Zedillo
last PRI president in the uninterrupted reign; had to deal with the December Mistake which was the result of monetary policies opposite of his predecessor
Filipe Calderon
current president of Mexico; elected in contested elections in 2006; from PAN; conservative politician
Theocracy
government by divine guidance or, more commonly, government by or subject to religious institutions and leaders
Ayatollah
high ranking title given to Shi'a clerics; able to issue his/her own edicts based on religious laws
Shia/Sunni
consider Muhammad's bloodline as the leaders of Islam/accepted Abu Bakr as the new leader of Islam after Muhammad's death

Shia: 10-15%, but majority in Iran
Islamism
term used to denote a set of political ideologies holding that Islam is not only a religion but also a political system; states are governed to be in accordance with the Qu'ran
mullah
the name commonly given to local Islamic clerics or mosque leaders
Sharia
the body of Islamic Law; based on interpretation of the Qu'ran; deals with day-to-day life
Shah
Persian for King
Jihad
striving in the way of God; no often connected with acts of violence in the name of God
Qu'ran
holy book of Islam; the basis of law in Iran
majlis
national legislative body of Iran; liberals are often not allowed to run b/c of the Council of Guardians; has powers to check the executive
Persia
region known since 1925 as Iran
farsi
spoken language in Iran
Tehran
capital of Iran; more than half of Iran's industry is based in Tehran
Qajar Dynasty
followed Zand dynasty; lapsed into semicolonial state to Britain and Russia; during the end of reign a constitution and elected parliament were created
fatwa
considered opinion in Islam made by a mufti, a scholar capable of issuing judgments on Shari; fatwa is only binding on its author
velayat-e faqih
"Guardianship of the Islamic jurist," theocratic system devised by Khomeini
Ayatollah Ali Hoseini Khamenei
current Supreme Leader of Iran and was the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989; has stopped reform movements
Ayatollah Khomeini
political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi; Supreme Leader of Iran; created velayat-e faqih
Mohammed Reza Pahlavi
second Shah of Iran; fled in 1953 but was brought back to power with the help of the CIA; tyrant who was strongly dislike by Iranian people; reigned ended with Iranian revolution
Pahlavi Dynasty
short-lived dynasty started by a military takeover; ended by Iranian Revolution; period of turmoil for Iranians
Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
current President of Iran; has refused to stop the nuclear program of Iran; lives a modest life which has gained support of both conservative Muslims and poor Iranians
Assembly of Experts
congressional body of 86 Mujtahids which elects the Supreme Leader and supervises his activities. Members of the assembly are elected from a government-screened list of candidates by direct public vote to eight year terms
Expediency Council
administrative assembly appointed by the Supreme Leader; resolve differences or conflicts between the Majlis and the Council of Guardians, and also to serve as a consultative council to the Supreme Leader
Council of Guardians
oversees the Majlis; makes sure all laws are in accordance with Islamic Law; effectively has veto powers; all Majli candidates have to be approved by council of guardians
Mohammed Khatami
former President; found most of his support from youth and women; didn't make too many reforms b/c he was blocked by the conservatives in the Council of Guadians