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11 Cards in this Set

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Combination Pill (Effectiveness %?)
synthetic estrogen/progesterone “progestin”
(Theoretical 99.7%; Actual 95%)
How the (combination) pill works:
b. Signals hypothalamus to stop making GnRH
c. Progestin inhibits LH production by pituitary (mechanism unknown)
d. Cervical mucosa thickens, blocking sperm passage
e. Inadequate endometrial build-up prevents implantation
f. Newer combos also have Testosterone; others mimic fluctuating E/P levels (multiphasic)
Disadvantages of the (combination) pill
i. Nausea, weight gain, headaches, skin darkening on face, depression, missed periods
ii. Increase BP; increase heart attacks: raises LDLs (assoc. w/cholesterol), lowers HDLs (which prevent cholesterol deposition in arteries
a. Problem solved w/3 new progestins
b. 70 deaths/year from this - 10X lower than childbirth or auto accident death
DMPA (Depo-Provera) (Effectiveness %?)
Progesterone derivative; (ovulation inhibitor); shot every 3 months
Disadvantages of DMPA
a. Irregular bleeding (decrease over time)
b. Fertility returns after 6-24 months (must discontinue 1-2 yrs. Before trying for PG)
c. Osteoporosis (bone density loss)
d. Loss of libido, increased body hair, skin rashes or darkening
NORPLANT (Effectiveness %?)
6 Silastic capsules implanted in arm (1 ½” long), release low dose of synthetic progestin type hormone (levonorgestrel); no E; lasts 5 years; prevents ovulation and thickens cervical mucus);
Disadvantages of NORPLANT
a. Irregular bleeding 1st year (due to constant hormone levels); eventually adjust
b. Headache, nausea, breast tenderness, wt. gain, nervousness, depression, acne, increase in facial/body hair
LUNELLE(Effectiveness %?)
Monthly injection of synthetic estrogen and progesterone into the arm, buttocks or hip; researching a self-injection version, or having pharmacist inject it
Disadvantages of LUNELLE
= monster
(lack of menstruation)