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33 Cards in this Set

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COGNITION
ALL MENTAL PROCESESS ASSOCIATED WITH PROCESSING, REMEMBERING,AND COMMUNICATING MEMORIES

EX: IF YOU WENT TO A COGNITIVE THERAPIST FOR YOUR STEALING PROBLEM, HE WOULD TRY TO CHANGE YOUR MIND BY SAYING: "TRY WORKING FOR MONEY IF YOU LIKE IT INSTEAD OF STEALING IT"
CONCEPT
A MENTAL GROUPING OF SIMILAR OBJECTS,EVENTS,IDEAS,OR PEOPLE

EX: WHEN MR. BARLOW TELLS YOU TO SIT IN YOUR CHAIR, YOU DO SO,EVEN THOUGH YOU KNOW YOU REALLY HAVE A DESK. YOU HAVE A CONCEPT FOR WHERE AND WHAT YOUR SEAT IS AND YOU KNOW HE WANTS YOU TO SIT IN IT.
PROTOTYPE
A MENTAL IMAGE OR BEST EXAMPLE OF A CATEGORY

ex: OUR PROTOTYPE OF BIRDS -- THAT THEY HAVE 2 LEGS AND CAN FLY -- ALLOW US TO CLASSIFY A ROBIN AND A DOVE AS A BIRD -- WHICH HAVE 2 LEGS AND CAN FLY.
ALGORITHM
A STEP BY STEP PROCEDURE THAT GUARANTEES A SOLUTION

EX: AN ALGEBRA PROBLEM, SUCH AS 2X+4=8,WILL ALWAYS HAVE A SOLUTION AND THE STEPS YOU WOULD TAKE ARE FIRST, SUBTRACT 4 FROM BOTH SIDES,THEN DIVIDE BY TWO TO GET YOUR SOLUTION OF 2.
HEURISTIC
A SIMPLE STRATEGY THAT ALLOWS US TO COME TO SOLUTIONS EFFICIENTLY

EX: HARRY USED TO DO A ROLLING STOP AT A STOP SIGN, BUT THEN HE GOT CAUGHT BY THE COP AND GOT A TICKET, SO NOW HE COMES TO A COMPLETE STOP
INSIGHT
A SUDDEN FLASH OF INSPIRATION TO SOLVE A PROBLEM

EX: INGRID FINALLY FIGURED OUT THE ANSWER TO QUESTION TO AS IT SUDDENLY POPPED INTO HER HEAD AS SHE WAS DRIVING HOME AFTER THE TEST
CONFIRMATION BIAS
SEARCHING FOR INFO THAT CONFIRMS YOUR BELIEFS,RATHER THAN THE TRUTH OR SOLUTION

EX: CINDY'S TEACHER TREATED HER UNFAIRLY AND GIVE HER UNFAIR GRADES BECAUSE SHE HAD HER BROTHER, BOB, THE PREVIOUS YEAR,AND BOB WAS A VERY BAD KID. CINDY'S TEACHER ASSUMED THAT CINDY WAS JUST AS BAD AS BOB,AND DIDN'T BOTHER TO SEE CINDY AS A GOOD STUDENT.INSTEAD, SHE FOCUSED ON THE TIME WHEN CINDY WAS TARDY TO CLASS ONCE ALL SEMESTER
FIXATION
INABILITY TO ADOPT A NEW SOLUTION TO A PROBLEM

EX: FRED REALIZED HIS NEW COLOGNE ATTRACTS A LOT OF GIRLS,SO THAT'S ALL HE DOES WHEN HE WANTS TO GET A GIRL.HE FAILS TO REALIZE THAT HIS SENSE OF HUMOR AND HIS PERSONALITY ALSO WORK BECAUSE HE IS SET ON USING HIS COLOGNE AS A WEAPON OF ATTRACTION
REPRESENTATIVE HEURISTIC
judging likelihood of things in terms of how well they match our prototype

ex: we will assume that a short, slim person is a scholar because he fits our prototype of a professor, but in reality he could be an athlete
FUNCTIONAL FIXEDNESS
THE TENDENCY TO THINK OF THINGS ONLY IN TERMS OF THEIR USUAL FUNCTIONS

EX: FIONA SEARCHED ALL OVER THE HOUSE FOR A HAMMER TO PUT UP HER PICTURE, WHILE SHE COULD'VE JUST USED A BRICK TO DO THE SAME JOB.
AVAILABILITY HEURISTIC
ELIMINATING THE LIKELIHOOD OF EVENTS BASED ON THEIR AVAILABILITLY IN MEMORY

EX: ASHELY WAS IN NYC WHEN 9/11 ATTACKS HAPPENED,SO NOW SHE WON'T GO BACK TO NEW YORK AGAIN.
MENTAL SET
THE TENDENCY TO APPROACH SITUATIONS IN THE SAME WAY BECAUSE IT WORKED IN THE PAST

EX: WHEN A CHILD APPROACHES A DOOR, HE PUSHES IT TO OPEN IT, BUT THEN HE COMES TO A DOOR THAT YOU CAN ONLY OPEN BY PULLING...EXCEPT HE'LL TRY TO PUSH IT OPEN BECAUSE HE HAS A MENTAL SET FOR OPENING DOORS BY PUSHING THEM
OVERCONFIDENCE
TENDENCY TO BE MORE CONFIDENT THAN CORRECT

EX: CONNIE THOUGHT SHE WOULD DO OK ON HER MATH EXAM BECAUSE SHE SEEMED TO UNDERSTAND EVERYTHING IN CLASS...SO SHE DIDN'T BOTHER TO STUDY. THEN SHE FAILED.
FRAMING
THE WAY A QUESTION OR STATEMENT IS WORDED BASED ON THE SITUATION AND MOOD

EX: YOUR PARENTS ARE HAPPY WITH YOU, AND THEY NEED YOU TO MOW THE LAWN. THEY COME UP TO YOUR ROOM AND GENTLY ASK "FRED, WILL YOU PLEASE DO US HUGE FAVOR AND MOW THE LAWN FOR US?"
BELIEF BIAS
WHEN ONE'S PREEXISTING BELIEFS DISTORT LOGICAL REASONING

EX: "GOD IS LOVE,LOVE IS BLIND.RAY CHARLES IS BLIND SO RAY CHARLES IS GOD."
BELIEF PERSEVERANCE
CLINGING TO ONE'S INITIAL CONCEPTION EVEN AFTER THE BASIS ON WHICH THEY WERE FORMED HAS BEEN DISCREDITED

EX: PATTY STILL BELIEVES THAT THE EARTH IS FLAT AND WON'T LET GO OF THIS IDEA EVEN WHEN THERE'S PLENTY OF EVIDENCE THAT IT IS ROUND
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE
THE SCIENCE OF DESIGNING COMPUTER SYSTEMS TO PERFORM OPERATIONS THAT ARE MIMIC HUMAN THINKING AND SO SMART THINGS

EX: PLAYING A GAME, SUCH AS CHECKERS,ONLINE WITH A COMPUTER... A COMPUTER IS MIMICKING THE WAY A HUMAN WOULD PLAY THIS GAME.
LINGUISTIC DETERMINISM
OUR LANGUAGE DETERMINES THE WAY WE THINK

EX: LINDA IS A HOPI, SO THERE ARE SO WORDS IN THE PAST TENSE IN HER LANGUAGE, THEREFORE, LINDA DOESN'T SPEAK IN THE PAST, SO SHE CAN'T THINK OF THE PAST
thinking
mental activities used to reason or reflect
directed thinking
includes thought processes like reasoning, decision making, and problem solving
autistic thinking
fantasizing and day dreaming
mental representations
representations of knowledge and thought
analogical representations
representation has some qualities of what it represents
symbolic represention
representation has none of the qualities of what is represents
visual imagery
representations of sensory experience that occurs in the brain, w/o the presence of sensory input
concept formation
mentally classifying objects and events based on common features
concept
class or category w/ individuals or subtypes (birds)
prototype
best example of a concept (sparrow)
decision making
the process of choosing between options
framing
the way a problem is posed affects the perception of how its solved
reasoning
determining the conclusions that can be drawn from examples of assertions
inductive reasoning
constructing conclusions from particular examples
deductive reasoing
deciding whether a conclusion can be drawn from premises or facts