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173 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is Behavior that conforms to accepted professional standards
of conduct?
Ethical Behavior
Each profession has a individualized code of ethics
applicable to issues confronted in the field is what?
Ethical Behavior
What is A person’s right to make choices and take actions
based on that person’s own values and belief
system?
Autonomy
This is achieved through
- Informed Choice
- Informed Consent
Autonomy
What is The idea that patients who have the capacity to make
decisions about their care must be permitted to do so?
Informed Choice
What Requires providers to clearly communicate about the
treatment choices?
Informed Choice
What also mandates that the provider discuss other lessfavored
approaches?
informed choice
What is The ability of the patient to freely and voluntarily
consent or refuse recommended medical procedures
based on sufficient knowledge of the benefits,
burdens, and risks involved?
informed choice
What must be present in order for a patient’s consent to be valid?
- He or she must be competent to make medical
choices
During informed consent the patient must be provided
with what?
What are the difficulties of informed consent?
Confidentiality, Mandatory Reporting, Professional Boundaries, Overlapping relationship, and Dual relationships
What difficulty of informed consent does HIPPA involve?
Confidentiality
Limitations of confidentiality involves what?
Reportable diseases or conditions
Notifiable diseases or conditions should be reported to who?
the county health department
What must the person reporting the disease to the county health dept?
Provide agency with information about the patient.
What is the reporting time frame for a person who calls the county health department regarding a disease?
What division of the difficulties of informed consent is the following: Any mandatory reporter who knows, or has reasonable cause to suspect that a child/vulnerable adult is being abused,neglected, or at threat of harm by a parent, legal custodian, caregiver, or other person is required by law to report their suspicions
Mandatory Reporting
T/F As a mandatory reporter your name is provided in the report.
True
T/F Abuse reports are not kept confidential which includes the name of who made the report.
False- They are confidential.
What must a reporter include in the report?
What is Boundaries define effective and appropriate interaction between professionals and the public they serve?
Professional Boundaries
What Exist to protect both the professional and the client?
Professional Boundaries
What May be inadvertent, thoughtless or even purposeful to meet a therapeutic need in regards to professional boundaries?
Boundary crossing are brief excursions across boundaries
What occur when there is confusion between the needs of the clinician and those of the patient?
Boundary Violations
What are common areas were boundary crossing or
violations occur?
- Self-disclosure
What occurs when a clinician has contact, but no significant authority or emotional relationship with the client?
Overlapping Relationship
What can be potentially problematic, however can be difficult to avoid
especially in smaller communities?
overlapping relationship
What must clinicians do when a relationship is unavoidable?
When relationships are unavoidable the clinician must maintain an awareness of the interpersonal dynamics
What Occurs when an individual simultaneously or sequentially participates in two role categories?
dual relationship
What can exploit the inherent power imbalance in the therapeutic relationship
dual relationship
Why should clinicians avoid a dual relationship?
Clinicians should avoid relationships with their clients outside of therapy where either the therapist or client is in a position to give a special favor, or to hold any type of power over the other
What also includes having intimate/sexual
relationship with patients?
Dual relationships
What kind of relationship is always unacceptable?
Sexual relationships with patients
What will destroy trust in therapeutic relationship and seen as an abuse of power?
sexual relationships with patients
What questions must a professional ask themselves when they are not sure how to proceed with professional boundaries?
Is this in my patient's best interest? Whose needs are being served?Will this have an impact on the service I am providing? Should I make a note of my concerns or consult with a colleague?
How would this be viewed by the patient's family or significant other?
How would I feel telling a colleague about this?
Am I treating this client differently? Does this patient mean something special to me? Am I taking advantage of the patient?
Does this action benefit me rather then the patient?
Am I comfortable in documenting this decision in the patient file?
What Occurs when more change or adjustment is required
of an individual that he/she is capable of
producing at the same time?
Crisis
What are common misconceptions about crisis?
• People in crisis are always physically
incapacitated.
• Crisis is experienced within each individual.
– Do groups experience crisis? Yes/No
• Crisis leads to total psychological
breakdown.
• Crisis is the same as the stressor or stimulus
provoking response
What is an emergency?
Immediate
• Consequences less
foreseen
• Require immediate
intervention
• Frequent emergencies
can lead to crisis
What is a crisis?
Situations have been
building over time.
• More complex
• May require longerterm
intervention
How are people affected by crisis?
Disorganization
• Anxiety
• Erratic Behavior
• Impaired Judgment
• Other Physical Signs and Symptoms
What is Characterized as a distressed state accompanied by diffuse feelings of uncertainty, apprehension, and sometimes imminent danger?
Anxiety
What can cause communication difficulties including: Difficulty perceiving accurately
• Abilities to process information impaired
• Abilities to express ideas, thoughts and emotions limited
Anxiety
The most obvious sign that a patient presents in
acute crisis is what?
anxiety
What level of anxiety is the following: Sensory perception and ability to focus are broad. Ability
to observe oneself and what is going on is enhanced.
Learning can take place. Patient is alert and able to
function in emergencies.
Mild
What level of anxiety is the following: Sensory perception is narrowed, but alertness continues to
the extent that the patient is able to concentrate on a
delineated focus. Patient must concentrate to shutout
irrelevant info in order to concentrate on relevant data.
Moderate
What level of anxiety is the following: Sensory perception is greatly reduced. Patient focuses on
minuet detail without seeing the big picture. Learning
cannot take place.
Severe
What level of anxiety is the following: Major dissociation of experience and patient does not
notice or remember experiences. Certain details are
magnified or distorted. State of terror, learning cannot take place and goal is to get relief.
Panic
What kind of crisis is the following: – Individual development requires that we pass
successfully through certain psychosocial task
developments that correspond to our physical potential.
– Each developmental task has potential for crisis.
Developmental Crisis
What kind of crisis is the following: Situations or stimuli that assaults on physical and
psychological health.
Situational Crisis
What is State of hypervigilance in which one is seeking
optimum awareness to ward off perceived or
actual threat.
– Exhaustion
– Sleep deprivation
– Nutritional disturbances
Crisis Resolution
What occurs when A series of interventions are needed to safeguard patients, families, and people around them?
Crisis Resolution
What occurs when the aim is that the patient will return, at the minimum, to the precrisis state and preferably to a much
higher level of functioning?
Crisis Resolution
T/F Patient has a better chance of restoration without
severe disorganization if the crisis is resolved or
minimized in a timely manner.
True
T/F Early intervention in crisis can help alleviate
disorganization and also increase coping capability
in terms of the initial or subsequence crisis.
True
What can help the
patient deal with crisis better.
Supportive relationship, trust, with provider can help
patient deal with crisis better.
What are the stages of general adaptation syndrome?
Alarm, Resistance, and Exhaustion
What stage of the general adaptation syndrome occurs when the mobilization of adaptive mechanisms occurs?
Alarm
What stage of the general adaptation syndrome occurs when the stressful event or stimuli required sustained,
high-level use of adaptive mechanisms?
Resistance
What stage of the general adaptation syndrome occurs when adaptive mechanisms are depleted through
prolonged use; confusion, disorientation, lapse of
consciousness may occur?
Exhaustion
T/F According to theorists, crisis can affect your health
or thought process depending on how long the
crisis holds.
True
What are the temporary effects of stress and crisis?
Crisis can act as a catalyst, stimulating
adaptation or change. Lead to renew strength and problem
solving.
What are the prolonged effects of stress and crisis?
Daily hassles tend to lead towards pathological
conditions.
What are the guidelines for helping a patient in crisis?
1. Crisis victims should not be revictimized in the
process of being helped.
2. An emotional or psychological connection with
the patients is critical.
3. Crises are responses to real or imagined threats
(validity of threat should not be challenged)
4. Crisis is not a single event, the residual effects
of crisis can continue indefinitely.
What is the following:
• Originally referred to 5 stages of death and dying.
• Created by Kübler-Ross in her book On Death and
Dying (1969).
• Originally used for illness, but stages can be used for any application related to loss.
Stages of Adaptation to Illness and Injury
What are the 5 stages of loss?
1. Denial
2. Anger
3. Bargaining
4. Depression
5. Acceptance
What is the stages that have been adapted for disease
management (i.e. patients with chronic diseases)?
Modified Stages for illness
What identifies emotional reaction of patients who are
facing rehabilitation?
modified stages for illness
T/F With regards to modified stages for illness, it is important that patient’s emotions change over
time.
True
What are the four stages for illness?
1. Fear and Anxiety
2. Anger and Hostility
3. Depression
4. Resolution and Acceptance
T/F With regards to the four stages of illness, all patients harbor certain reactions for the same amount of time.
False - Some patients harbor certain reactions longer
than other.
T/F With regards to the four stages of illness, the process of evolving emotional reactions
appears to be more complex (can cycle).
True
What is a result of general awareness of illness or injury?
Fear and Anxiety
T/F The severity of the illness does not necessarily
determine the level of fear or anxiety of a patient.
True
T/F Patients frequently are able to communicate their
fears and anxieties.
False - Patients frequently are unable to communicate their fears and anxieties.
Why are fear and anxiety rarely discussed?
These emotions are generally underdiscussed because it is seen as a natural emotion.
What is the recommendation regarding fear and anxiety with patients?
Openly discuss a patient’s
emotional reaction to his/her illness.
What is a response to stress and a statement of protest?
Anger and Hostility
Expressions of what are present but communicated in ways wherein they go unnoticed or misunderstood.
anger
Who becomes targets of this
emotion and should understand there is seldom anything
personal in patient’s response?
anger and hostility
What is the recommendation regarding patients and anger?
If verbal anger, do not take personally or communicate to family members that emotion is not
personal. If behavioral, educate patient about treatment plan and different options to help alleviate frustration.
May be associated with variety of variables and all
contribute to emotion.
– Insufficient outlet of anger
– Limited support
– Powerlessness
– Hopelessness
Depression
What can be difficult to detect due to masking of
emotions. When asked who they are doing, some
patients respond with “OK, Fine, or Good.”
depression
Why is depression dangerous?
Danger in chronic and terminal patients is level of
depression and possible self-harm or suicide.
What is the recommendation regarding patients with depression?
Look for nonverbal
communication cues of repressed anger or
depression. Ask patients to give a more “emotional” word other than “OK, Fine, or Good.”
What is it when crisis is resolved and stress in minimized until the next
illness or injury?
resolution and acceptance
What is the following: Patients with chronic or terminal illnesses may experience
resolution after fulfilling three behavioral categories.
– Behavioral Control
– Cognitive Control
– Decisional Control
Resolution and acceptance
When is it important to counsel the patient after the resolution has occured?
Important to counsel patient if after resolution occurs, other emotions evolve.
How do you break the bad news to a patient?
Three assumptions that providers hold when
breaking the news.
1. Patients have the right to make decisions about
their health and well-being.
2. Patients’ health and well-being and condition of
their body belong to them
3. Provider-patient relationship is based on mutual respect and trust
When approaching a patient about a negative
prognosis or terminal status…
– Conversation should not be initiated without
providing opportunity for clarification or
reaction to information.
– Once subject is raised, other concerns may
surface. As providers, you will need to address
these concerns too.
What kind of patient is based on the provider's perception?
Difficult patients
What are the ways that a difficult patient can manifest?
1) Difficult care context
2) Difficult task
3) Difficult behavior type
What are the common difficult patient types?
• The Patient with Noncompliant Behavior
• The Patient with Manipulative Behavior
• The Patient with Aggressive Behavior
• The Patient with Complaining Behavior
• The Patient in Denying Behavior
What is the following:
• Arguably the most difficult and
frustrating.
• Disease and inadequate technology vs.
patient behavior.
• Passive or active noncompliance with
treatment.
• Decreases outcome likelihood.
• Provider’s reaction to noncompliance –
reactions can be detrimental to patient.
Noncompliant Behavior
What are the common reasons for patient non-compliance?
• Common reasons for patient noncompliance:
1) Unconvinced of need
2) Language barriers
3) Problems in understanding rationale
4) Conflicts with provider
5) Cultural beliefs
6) Cost
7) Undesirable side effects
What is the following: • Fear of treatment, medication, or
therapy.
• Loss of perceived positive experience –
the subjectivity can be difficult.
noncompliant behavior
What kind of behavior is the following: • Viewed as “dependent patients.”
• Once thought to have gender and SES
predictors, now universal.
• Patient’s attempt to establish control of
provider-patient relationship.
• Uses helplessness to accomplish goal.
• Response to helplessness promotes additional control.
manipulative behavior
What are the options that a provider is left with when having a manipulative patient?
1) Succumb to manipulation
2) Find optional ways to meet patient’s
need
• Likened to parent-child relationship.
• Patient may release total responsibility.
• When experienced, failure is attributed
to provider.
What kind of patient is the following: 1) Allows others to assume responsibility
for major life issues
2) Lacks self-confidence and self-perceived
as helpless and inadequate
3) Possibly fearful of isolation
4) Seeks reassurance and approval
Manipulative patient
What are the precautionary entanglements regarding a manipulative patient?
1) Socializing with patient
2) Honoring special requests/privileges
3) Bargaining with patient
4) Accepting flattery or positive
reinforcement
5) Allowing time, frequency, and duration control
What kind of behavior is the following:
• Communication contains hostility.
• Less common – can be driven by context.
• Easily creates disconnection based on
fear.
• Ranging from vented frustration to
purposeful aggression.
• Typically self-reported as overwhelmed.
• Fight or flight response.
Aggressive Behavior
How may aggressive behavior be demonstrated?
1) Criticism and sarcasm
2) Condescending or blaming language
3) Insults
4) Physical aggression
What are other signs of aggressive behavior?
1) Nonverbals (eyes, facial)
2) Provocative behavior
3) Increased motor activity
4) Environmental damage
What kind of behavior is the following: • Providers are available targets for
projected emotions.
• Triggering effect can be produced
unintentionally.
• Important not to use confrontation
during period of aggression.
• Physical responses should be used as last
resort.
Aggressive behavior
What kind of behavior is the following: • The expression of negativity that implies
a difficulty to please.
• The role of unrealistic expectations.
• The danger of “ignoring” the
expectations.
• Patients may demonstrate a sense of loss
of control.
• Escalation of complaints/demands
typically follow.
complaining behavior
What kind of behavior is the following: • Classic patient situation is individual
with hypochondriasis.
• Double-edged sword – denial of
complaints vs. fueling the condition.
• Real-life problems vs. unnecessary focus
on the assumed.
complaining behavior
What kind of behavior is the following:
• Denial is typically indicative of
maladaptive coping.
• A self-protective mechanism.
• Should always treat denial carefully.
• Difficulties arise when denial is
prolonged and complicated.
• Elaborate construction can be present.
denying behavior
What kind of behavior is the following: • Minimization of reality can be
detrimental.
• Typically accompanied with other selfdefense
mechanisms (rationalization,
blocking).
• Obvious explanations.
• Interpersonal crowding and changing
subjects.
denying behavior
What kind of behavior is the following:
• Interference with treatment is biggest
problem.
• The relationship between denial and
hope.
• A level of reality-based problem-solving
may be necessary.
• Confrontations are typically used.
denying behavior
What are the remedies for certain behaviors?
• Responding vs. reacting.
• What is really being said, and why is it
being said?
• Two tasks:
1) Identification of the patient’s behavior
and underlying emotions
2) Identification of one’s own triggers
• Be respectful of the patient’s reaction.
• Disrespect may be expected.
• Demonstrate acceptance of the patient’s
viewpoint.
• Does not mean acceptance of subsequent
behavior.
• Winning the battle, but losing the war.
• Show concern for the patient’s wellbeing.
• Patient’s react positively if assumed that
best interest is in mind.
• Practice objectivity – feelings should not
obscure reason and judgment.
• Don’t take reactions personally.
• A balance of concern and objectivity is
needed.
• Enhance awareness.
• State of wellness is bare minimum – what
are the physical and psychological needs?
• Can be difficult, as obscurity and
covertness may be present.
• Establish role and function – set limits.
• Respond assertively, not aggressively.
• Always present reality – false hope can be
very dangerous.
• Clarify expectations.
• Always maintain empathy and trust.
What are the two types of families?
Nuclear families and extended families
Who are usually essential to the recovery of a patient?
family members
Who are valuable informants regarding the patient?
family members
Family functioning is categorized by the family’s ability to fulfill what?
- Communicative
– Relational
– Survival needs
Whenever the physical and emotional resources of the family are insufficient, what are threatened.
Whenever the physical and emotional resources of the family are insufficient, critical family tasks and functions are threatened.
What kind of family attempts to cope by appropriate but inadequate role enactment?
marginal families
what kind of family engages inappropriately?
disorganized families
In regards to family styles in relation to illness, what kind of family style is the following: members are a primary source of social support. The family is proactive.
Family as a resource.
In regards to family styles in relation to illness, what kind of family style is the following: Maladaptive coping skills, and contributes to the patient's problems.
Family as a deficit
In regards to family styles in relation to illness, what kind of family style is the following: Family contributes to the course of illness. Can be adaptive or maladaptive functioning.
Family and course of illness
In regards to family styles in relation to illness, what kind of family style is the following: views how the illness affects the other family members (burden or stress)
Family and the impact of illness
Assess the family through information gathered in what three categories?
1. Family’s report of the patient’s condition
2. Family’s report of the health of its members
3. Family’s report of the nature of its roles and relationships
Family’s report of the patient’s condition reveals what?
– How the patient’s illness or injury is perceived from the outside
– The possibility that the patient may have the tendency to minimize or exaggerate
symptoms
– Families awareness and their own tendencies to minimize or exaggerate changes in the patients’ appearance, behavior, or demeanor
Providers want to gather information from the family on what?
– What the family members have observed
– The nature of the signs and symptoms
– The degree of disability or impaired functioning
– How the member has processed this date and been affected by the patient’s condition
T/F Families are informants about the systems overall health.
True
Who serves as a check on the reliability of the patient’s report?
family members
Who can often provide generational information?
family members
Who can identify which family members are the most important to the patient?
family members ... duh
Who can help a health care professional gain insight into the patient’s current life situation/living arrangements?
family members
What are categories to gather information from the family member?
– Active or potential dysfunction in the family
– Factors that may inhibit communication in the family
– Quality of communication between the patient and specific designated responsible
parties
– Patient’s role in the family and alterations in role functioning as a result of the onset or progression of illness
What underlying feelings are present when a person asks a health care professional "are they ok" or "how are they doing?"
Fear, worry, and concern. They are seeking reassurance that the patient is ok.
What underlying feelings are present when a person asks a health care professional "How did they get it?"
Confusion, Concern. They are wanting education about the disease and whether or not they can get it.
What underlying feelings are present when a person asks a health care professional "Will they die?"
Worry, concern, fear. They are asking for you to prepare them for what they have to face.
What underlying feelings are present when a person asks a health care professional "What treatment has been administered?" or "Where is everyone at?"
Worry, concern, frustration. They are asking you to let them know that you will do what is needed when it is needed.
What underlying feelings are present when a person asks a health care professional "Can I talk to you for a minute?"
Determination and Concern. They are telling you that they really need more time.
What underlying feelings are present when a person asks a health care professional "I'm afraid I'll do or say something wrong."
Hesitancy and concern. They are asking you to tell them how they should act or if they are doing ok.
T/F Family systems respond to illness in the same manners.
False - Family systems respond to illness in different manners.
Family styles can be divided into 7 different categories which are not mutually exclusive which are what?
• Chaotic family
• Family in crisis
• Anxiety ridden family
• Guilt-ridden family
• Enmeshed family
• Intimidating family
• Uncooperative or abusive family
What kind of family is the following: • Have multiple caregivers and problems
• Communication is confused and poor
• Often appear to lack structure; goals; and overall guidance
• Often look towards the provides for leadership
• Very poor problem solving skills
Chaotic Family
What is the guidelines for communication with a chaotic family?
– Structure the direction and duration of the interview
– Speak clearly and gain control within the family
– Appeal to the leaders to follow upon recommendations
– Establish timeline for future encounters
What kind of family is the following: Lose control over their emotions and don’t synthesize information or instructions in a rational manner?
Family in crisis
What are the guidelines for speaking with a family in crisis?
– Make important information and instructions clear and simple to understand
– Allow time for the family members to express their emotions regarding situation
What kind of family is the following: Family is extremely tense and upset about the status of the patient – there will be family members that are over-involved. They will drive you crazy.
• Frequently over-involved in the patient’s care
• Anxiety often driven by lack of information
• Seek reassurance and information but utilize information poorly
Anxiety Ridden family
What are the guidelines for communicating with an anxiety ridden family?
– Be clear with patients and family members
– Say the same thing to all family members
– Avoid false reassurance
What kind of family is the following: – These families can be very draining and often very difficult to converse with
– Communication is motivated by the need to make restitution, to pay for injustices, or to deal with unresolved feelings towards the patient
– Often have an inability to control anger and their negative feelings
– These feelings are often projected onto the provider and the family makes unreasonable demands of the provider
Guilt-Ridden Families
What are the guidelines for speaking with guilt-ridden famiies?
– Understand the dynamic of the family
– Establish boundaries and clear treatment plans
– Do not become defensive when attacked by patient’s family members
What kind of family is the following: • Family members are over-involved and individual member autonomy is either severely limited or non existent
• No boundaries in the family
• What is happening to one member happens to all of the members
• Family members often lack objectivity to the problem
Enmeshed families
What are the guideliens for speaking to an enmeshed family?
– Set limits
– Clarify boundaries, professional roles, and expectations
– Maintain autonomy for clinical decision making
What kind of family is the following: • Have rigid boundaries
• Family members often incapable of feeling or sensing the needs of the patient
• Structurally may have minimal contact or interactions with the patient
Disengaged families
What are the guidelines for speaking with disengaged families?
– The family members must be brought closer together
– Projecting feelings
– Discussing typical responses to injury or illness to family members encourage revelation of feeling
What kind of family is the following: • Often one of the most distressing types of families
• Families communication may be characterized as abusive
• Often puts down provider through questioning providers action
• Family members become threatening
• May allude to complaints or suits that are forthcoming
Intimidating Families
What are the guidelines for speaking with intimidating families?
– Establish a clear treatment plan
– Must resist the anger the family attempts to provoke
– Focus on the underlying dynamics that explain the power struggles that these families tend to evoke
What kind of family is the following: • Often exhibit very little or no real concern for the patient
• Very resistant in speaking with providers
• Family member often do not follow through with providers recommendation or suggestions
• Some of these families will even abandon the patient leaving them to fend for themselves
Uncooperative families
What are the guidelines for speaking with uncooperative families?
– Analyze and understand the underlying issues
– Assess how the family responses will affect the outcome patient’s care and treatment
What do informal caregivers often lack?
the skill, knowledge, and experience to handle the overwhelming stress of caring for a family member
What are caregivers often faced with?
– Learning to give instrumental care
– Provide emotional support
– Maintain their personal activities
What creates a caregiver burden?
Managing everything regarding the patient
Why do caregivers often experience emotional exhaustion?
Caregiver burden symptoms
Feeling physically/emotional drained
Angry and frustrated by the prospect of endless caregiving responsibilities
Frustration by program of caregiving and the numerous demands without clear signs of improvement or progress
Angry at the patient for significantly altering their quality of life
What do all work groups have?
Content and Process
What two objectives should group communication have?
Objective Identification and Task facilitation
What do unsuccessful groups typically demonstrate?
1) Inability to define aims
2) Inability to achieve aims
3) Communication marked with conflict
4) Overall frustration and group breakdown
What are the three main reasons why groups are ineffective?
1) Conflict
2) Nonparticipation
3) Indecisiveness
What is the definition of group conflict?
The presence of disagreement,
argumentation, and subsequent
commentary. Tense atmosphere and overall uncomfortable experience.
What are the top reasons for group conlict occurence?
1) Polarity towards content and process
2) Impatience
3) Non-constructive criticism
4) Refusal to compromise
5) Rationalization toward group make-up
6) It becomes personal
What is the definition of group nonparticipation?
- Underinvolvement and apathy.
• Develops into periods on inactivity.
• Lack of consistency.
• Loss of dependability and accountability.
• All are symptoms of much greater problem.
What are the top reasons for group nonparticipation?
1) Lack of investment
2) Inadequate approaches (process)
3) Barriers to problem-solving
4) Sense of powerlessness in decisionmaking
5) Prolonged conflict
What is the definition of group indecisiveness?
Group communication is fragmented.
• Unsuccessful content or process.
• Involvement of hypotheticals.
• Fear of premature decision-making.
• Potentially wrong solution vs. complete lack of solution.
What are important questions regarding remedies of group conlict?
1) What is your objective?
2) What is your approach?
3) How invested are you?
4) What is contribution level?
5) How are you interacting with the group?
What questions should you ask yourself regarding group situational awareness?
1) What is the group’s objective?
2) What are the current approaches?
3) How is the current communication?
4) What degree is evolution has occurred?
What questions should you ask yourself regarding reporting assessments?
1) What observations have been made?
2) What items are producing dysfunction?
3) How has communication worked and not worked?
4) What problems have been unresolved?
What attributes lead to functional problem solving?
1) Roles and functions are taken seriously
2) Process encourages and enables work to be done
3) Control and influence is equally distributed
4) A level of interpersonal support is established
5) Aims are reachable and procedures are known
6) Appropriate feedback and rewards for goal attainment
7) Personal effectiveness is valued
T/F Groups are constructed out of individuals.
True
T/F Groups are more effective if they are nonfunctional.
False - they should be functional in order to be effective.
What do problems that exist between groups depend on?
Several problems exist – all are dependent on initial content and process
decisions.
Are remedies available if group dysfunction should occur?
Yes.