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34 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is science?
A search for order among the facts it discovers.
One of the functions of science is a search for ...
order.
What must be done carefully with data?
Extrapolating or theorizing beyond the data.
What did Whitehead say about theory?
Scientific theory takes off from observations, makes a flight into the thin air of generalization, and lands for renewed observation.
When are theories of science valuable?
When they are grounded in observation.
What is the definition of "theory"?
Any explanation of an observed fact which appeals to events taking place somewhere else, at some other level of observation described in different terms, and measured, if at all, in different dimensions.
What are the acronyms for theory?
LTPD

LSDT
LTPD
L: Levels (different levels of observation

T: Terms (described in different terms)

P: Place (somewhere else/different place)

D: Dimension (if measured at all, measured in a different dimension)
LSDT
L: Level 5 (different levels of observation

S: Somewhere else (different place)

D: Dimension (if measured at all, measured in a different dimension)

T: Terms (described in different terms)
Skinner defines theory as an explanation based on
Levels, terms, dimensions, and place.
WHat is an example of the same level of dimension?
A child interacting with the environment to learn how to write.
What is an example of a different level of dimension?
If the child's learning how to write is attributed to brain functions.
"Brain function" and "inner ability to learn" are referring to a different level of ...
observation.
In the science of behavior, all statements about the nervous system are [blank], if they attempt to explain the cause for behavior.
Theories.
Is studying behavior for behavior's sake a legitimate area of investigation?
Yes.
What does Skinner feel about physiology?
Questions the necessity of including it in an analysis or explanation of behavior.
Skinner contends that statements such as "synaptic connections" are made or broken, electrical fields are dirupted or reorganized, concentrations of ions are built up or allowed to diffuse away, are [blank] when they are supposed to account for a behavior.
Theory
What is "mentalism"?
Theories because the methods and terms appropriate to the events to be explained differ from the methods and terms appropriate to the explaining events.
In Skinner's viewpoint, "Bobby does well in school because he finds school enjoyable" is a [blank]
Theory
What do theories get in the way of?
The search for relevant environmental variables.
One of the problems with a mentalistic explanation of expectancy is that we still have to account for the cause of [blank].
Expectancy
What is an inference?
Things that are not directly or publicly observed; as contrasted with facts or data which are publicly agreed upon.
Which datum varies significantly and in the same direction as "learning process" and is used as the basic datum of measuring behavior?
Rate of responding.
What does progress in a scientific field usually wait upon?
The discovery of a satisfactory dependent variable.
What is produced when inferred answers are used in place of adequate research?
False sense of security
What has Skinner suggested that CNS should stand for?
Conceptual nervous system
Can theories that generate research still be of little value?
Yes, unless the research is valuable.
Is it possible to design experiments without theories?
Yes. Such research could lead more directly to the kind of info which a science usually accumulates.
What is reductionism?
the use of constructs and laws from one discipline to explain the relationships found in another area.
What is the flaw of reductionism?
"We don't know which way is down."

Which is the more basic level?
Skinner's view on the major reason theories continue to exist is that theories are ...
fun.
Skinner contends that behavioral events should be explain in ...
behavioral terms.
What is one of the problems with a mentalistic notion of expectancy?
We still have to account for the mental event expectancy.
What categories of theory are described in Skinner's "Are Theories of Learning Necessary?"
Mentalism
Physiologizing