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29 Cards in this Set

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What does Gestalt mean?
holistic

The Now - focus is on the present
Unfinished Business
feelings from the past, which have been suppressed

can be expressed through psychosomatic symptoms
5 layers of the Human Personality (Gestalt)
Phony
Phobic
Impasse
Implosive
Explosive
4 Gestalt Principles
Holism
Field Theory
Figure-Formation Process
Organismic Self-Regulation
5 Main Types of Resistances to Contact (Gestalt)
Projection
Retroflection
Introjection
Deflection
Confluence
Books by William Glasser
Choice Theory: A New Psychology of Personal Freedom
Reality Therapy
Schools Without Failure
Glasser believed the underlying problems of any emotional disorder are:
1. The client does not have a relationship
2. The client is involved in an unsatisfying relationship
Glasser's WDEP System
W Wants and Needs
D Direction and Doing
E Evaluation
P Planning and Commitment
Glasser 5 Needs
Survival
Love and belonging
power
freedom
fun
Existential
process
Carl Rogers
Person-Centered Approach

pioneered the Humanistic movement in psychotherapy
Existentialists stress...

Humanists stress...
anxiety and choices

our natural potential if fostered
Incongruence
a discrepancy between one's self perception and one's experience in reality

The difference between the ideal self and the real self
Person-centered approach

Therapeutic techniques
reflect - repeating what client says
summarize - essence of what was said
clarify - 1. asking client if on right track "am I hearing correctly"
2. more crystalization, understanding what client means
Person-centered approach

Therapist needs to possess 3 personal attitudes
2. unconditional positive regard or acceptance
3. accurate empathic understanding
1. congruence or genuineness
Key Philosophers
Existentialism
Key Psychologists
Martin Buber, Paul Tillich, Jean-Paul Sartre, Soren Kierkegaard, Friendrich Wilhelm Nietzsche

Victor Frankl, Rollo May, Irvin Yalom
Existential Books
Man's Search for Meaning - Victor Frankl

The Meaning of Anxiety
Love and Will - Rollo May
Existentialism

6 basic dimensions of the
human condition
1. self-awareness
2. aware of own death
3. anxiety is a condition of life
4. freedom and responsibility
5. search for meaning
6. strive for identity and relationships
Person-Centered Approach

6 conditions for positive psychological change to take place
1. 2 ppl must be in psychological contact
2. client must be experienceing some incongruency
3. therapist is integrated in the relationship
4. therapist experiences unconditional positive regard and acceptance for the client
5. therapist experiences an empathic understanding of the client's internal frame of reference and strives to communicate this exp to client
6. communication to the client of the therapist's empathic understanding and acceptance is to a minimal degree achieved
Holism
all dimensions of human functioning
Field Theory
seen within context of environment
Figure-Formation Process
how individuals organize their environment
Organismic Self-Regulation
new focus or need, emerges.. equilibrium is disturbed
Introjection
uncritically accepting the beliefs of others without assimilation
Projection
Not owning aspects of oneself, but placing them onto others
Retroflection
Doing to oneself, what one would like to do to others, or what one would like others to do to us
Deflection
The use of distractions, such as humor, so that others do not see one's true self
Confluence
A burring of differentiation between the self and others
Gestalt Experiments
"I" Statements
metaphors and narratives
body language
confrontation
empty chair
role plays
top dog vs. under dog
reversal techniques
rehearsal and exaggeration
staying with the feeling