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15 Cards in this Set

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Classical Conditioning
Things are paired. It focuses on responses that are automatic, and involuntary, responses that are not deliberate and don’t require effort. The theory is also known as respondent, Pavlovian, or stimulus-response conditioning. The two pioneers of this theory were Ivon Pavlov and John Watson.
Unconditioned Reflex
When no learning has yet taken place and the link between stimulus and response is inborn and automatic and are generally the same for all members of a species. An unconditioned reflex involves an unconditioned stimulus (US) that evokes an unconditioned response (UR).
Conditioned Reflex
Results from experience and learning. Generally, the conditioned reflex varies among members of a species. Consists of a conditioned stimulus (CS) and a conditioned response (CR).
Neutral stimulus (NS) + unconditioned stimulus (US) = (unconditioned response (UR)
Standard Pairing
The conditioned stimulus precedes the unconditioned stimulus (US) by a short interval and overlaps into the presentation of the unconditioned stimulus.
Delay Conditioning
The CS precedes the US by a significant period and stops right before the US. For example, the dog will salivate (CR) when it hears the can opener (CS).
Temporal Conditioning
Occurs when the US is presented repeatedly at a consistent time interval. For example, humans get hungry around lunchtime.
Simultaneous Conditioning
The neutral stimulus and the unconditioned stimulus completely overlap. For example, the tone (NS) is sounded at exactly the same time the meet powder (US) is presented. No learning or conditioning actually takes place.
Backward Conditioning
The unconditioned stimulus (US) precedes the neutral stimulus (NS). For example, the meet powder (US) is presented first and the tone (NS) follows. No learning or conditioning occurs.
Stimulus Generalization
Also, known as Mediated Generalization. The subject automatically generalizes from a conditioned stimulus (CS) to other similar neutral stimuli. The subject then demonstrates the same conditioned response (CR) to these similar stimuli. Stimulus generalization occurs automatically and without any deliberate attempt on the part of the experimenter. (Little Albert) Also, after having been chased by a dog, a child cries and runs away whenever she sees any dog. This child now also begins to cry whenever she sees a cat. Mediated Generalization, when a child is classically conditioned to be afraid of a white rate, the child now seems to be fearful of white rabbits as well.
Higher-order Conditioning
Is a deliberate process in which a conditioned stimulus (CS) is paired with a neutral stimulus that is typically unrelated until eventually the new neutral stimulus becomes conditioned stimulus and also elicits the conditioned response (CR).
Classical Extinction
Results from repeatedly presenting the conditioned stimulus (CS) without the unconditioned stimulus (US). In order to extinguish a classically conditioned response, one should omit the unconditioned stimulus (US).
Treatment interventions based on classical extinction involve presenting the conditioned stimulus (CS) without the unconditioned stimulus (US) either over several trials, or for an extended period of time, to the point that the conditioned stimulus (CS) no longer elicits the conditioned response (CR). The reason most fears don’t extinguish naturally is because people avoid the CS or quickly flee from it when confronted by it. Classical conditioning can be accomplished using either flooding or implosive therapy. In order to extinguish a classically conditioned response, one should omit the unconditioned stimulus.
Response Generalization
Performing a behavior that is similar but not identical to the one that has been previously reinforced. Also happens naturally.
Spontaneous Recovery
During extinction trials, following a rest period, the conditioned response to the conditioned stimulus often briefly reappears.
Stimulus Discrimination
An animal learns to discriminate between two similar neutral stimuli because one has been paired with the unconditioned stimulus.
Occurs accidentally