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33 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
(FREUD) STRUCTURAL THEORY
Three internal structures guide personality functioning
ID
Definition: Seat of primitive drives and instinctual needs.

Properties: Impulses (impulsive behavior), Primary process thinking, Unconsious, Discharges tension
EGO
Definition:
Mediator- between drives (id) and external reality

Moderates-conflict between drives and internalized prohibitions

Adaptive-capacity in relation to external reality
SUPEREGO
Seat of conscience
Ego ideal
Uses internal and external rewards or punishments to control and regulate id impuleses
Three Levels of The Mind
1. Unconscious-Thoughts, feelings, desires, and memories of which we are unaware

2. Preconscious- Thoughts and feelings which can be brought into consciousness easily

3. Conscious- Mental activities of which we are fully aware
(PIAGET) COGNITIVE THEORY
Psychologist who was interested in cognitive development. After observation of many children, he posited that children progress through 4 stages and that they all do so in the same order. These four stages are described below.
Phase I: Sensorimotor (0-2 years)
Characteristics

a. Retains image of objects
b. Develops primitive logic in manipulating objects
c. Begins intentional actions
d. Play is imitative
e. Signal meaning-infanct invests meaning in event (babysitter arrives means mother is leaving)
f. Symbol meaning (language) begins in last part of this phase
Phase II: Preoperational (2-7 years)
Characteristics

a. Language development enables symbolic functioniing to occur
b. Progress from concretism to abstract thinking
c. Can comprehend past, present, and future
d. Night terrors
e. Acquires words, math symbols, music symbols, and other codes
f. Magical Thinking
g. Thinking is not generalized
h. Thinking is: 1. concrete 2. Irreversible 3. egocentric (cannot see another point of view) 4. centered on one detail or event
Phase III: Concrete Operations (7-11 years)
Characteristics

a. Beginings of abstract thought
b. Plays games with rules
c. Cause and effect relationship understood
d. Logical implications are understood
e. thinkning is independent of experience
f. Thinking is reversible
g. Rules of logic are developed
Phase IV: Formal Operations (11-maturity)
Characteristics

a. higher level of abstraction
b. construction of ideals
c. Planning for future
d. Thinks hypothetically
e. De-centers through interactions with peers and elders
f. Assumes adult roles and responsibilities
( ERICKSON) STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
Postulates a series of tasks to be accomplished in 8 stages of development
I. Trust vs. Mistrust (0-1)
Tasks

Sufficient supplies enable infant to be assured of care. Soothing so not overwhelmed by stimuli. Outer predictability and inner certainty of mother.
II. Autonomy vs. Shame (1-3)
Tasks

Verbal and conceptual stimulation. Language develops. Permission to explore with protection against danger. Support of growth. Capacity to move away from. Begining differentiation.
III. Initiative vs. Guilt (3-6)
Tasks

Begining move away from home. Permission for exploration. Play with peers. Learning about wider world outside of home. Pride in Self and achievements separate from parents. Superego development. Self-definition.
IV. Industry vs. Inferiority (6-13)
Tasks

Conformity in educational institution at the sacrifice of some creativity and imagination. Intellectual and social mastery begins. Cooperation with others (peers annd teachers) is signal
V. Identity vs. Role Confusion (11-18)
Tasks

Partial separation from parents. Peer relationships are primary. Sexual identity is confirmed. Conformity within group. Development of vocational goal. Second individuation phase.
VI. Intimacy vs. Isolation (18-21)
Tasks

Leaving home. Development of a career. Development of vocational goal. Second individuation phase.
VII. Generativity vs. Stagnation (21-65)
Tasks

Achievement of stable new family. Achievement and productivity in vocational area.
VIII. Ego Integrity vs. Despair (65+)
Tasks

Acceptance of mortality. Satisfaction with previous life roles. Oppportunity for further self development. Adequacy in dealing with loss (death and illness).
MAHLER'S 4 subphases on child's progress to Object (Person) Constancy
Capacity to hold image w/o person present; unifies the "good" and "bad" feelings in one whole.
Attachment Phase:

I. Normal Autism (0 to 2-3 months)
Characteristics:

a.One must meet all physiological needs
b. Stimulus barrier exists preventing flooding from external stimuli
c. Dim awareness that supplies cannot be self provided
d. Alert inactivity is noted
Attachment Phase:

II. Normal Symbiosis (2 to 5-6 months)
Characteristics:

a. Awareness of external without differentiation between self and outside self ("I" vs. "Not I")
b. Omnipotent fusion with representation of mother
c. unspecified smiling response
d. Mutual cueing between infant and mother to ensure satisfying interactional patterns
Separation-individuation Phase:

III. Differentiation Hatching (5-6 to 10-12 months)
Characteristics:

a. Alert when awake
b. Outwardly directed perceptual activity
c. Exploration of others face, tactile, and visual observation
d. Transitional objects
e. Discrimination between mother and others
f. Stranger anxiety (8 months)
Separation-individuation Phase:

IV. Practicing (Separation) Early (7 to 12 months)
Characteristics:

a. Disengagement from mother as creeping begins
b. Exploration at some distance from mother
c. Frequent return to mother for refueling
Separation-individuation Phase:

V. Practicing Proper (10-12 to 16-18 months)
Characteristics:

a. Upright mobility
b. Height of narcissism
c. Trying out own skills autonomously from mother
d. Runs away from mother with anticipation she will re-engage
e. Says bye-bye
f. Becomes low-keyed when parent os absent
Separation-individuation Phase:

VI. Rapprochement Begining (15-18 months)
Characteristics:

a. Disengagement alternating with intense demands for attention
b. Shadowing and dartin away
c. Resurgence of stranger anxiety
d. Shares discoveries with mother
e. Identifies body as own and may resist handling
f. Will attach to others, especially when mother is absent
g. Sleep disturbances occur
Separation-individuation Phase:

Rapprochement Crisis (18-20 months to 24+ months)
Characteristics:

a. Mother felt as extension of self and child fears reengagement
b. Extension of emotional range
c. Indecision
d. Beginings of empathy
e. Splitting of object with "good" and "bad" components
f. Transitional activities (reading)
g. Can leave mother rather be left alone
Separation-individuation Phase:

Individual Solution to Crisis (21-30 months)
Characteristics:

a. Language development enables expression of needs
b. Expresses wishes in symbolic play
c. Uses play to master anxiety
d. Internalizes rules and demands
e. Develops own individual means to solve problems (begining personality development)
f. Identifies gender differences
g. Internalization of parental demands
h. Ambitendency- alternating clinging and negativistic behaviors
Separation-individuation Phase:

VII. Consolidation of individuality (beginings of constancy) (24-36+ months)
Characteristics:

a. Can substitute a reliable internal image during absence
b. Heightened learning promotes memory retention
c. Play is purposeful and constructive
d. Unified self-image (good & bad aspects) is at inception
BOWLBY'S ATTACHMENT THEORY
-Primary social bond between infant and caregiver
-Behavior used to maintain or increase proximity between infant and primary caretaker signaling behavior (smiling, vocalizing, locomotion, active physical contact (hugging, clinging)
1. Stranger Anxiety
Fearful response to strangers (6-8 months)
2. Separation Anxiety
Fearful response when left by caretaker (12 months)
3. Prolonged Separation
(18 months) cry, settles in with despair