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88 Cards in this Set

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relatively short process, rarely comprising of more than 5 sessions, problem-oriented, solution-focused, gives advice in a particular area of human behavior (expert or teacher)
can continue for years, person-oriented, helping people discover why they think, feel, and act in unsatisfactory ways (facilitator or detective)
Corsini's Nine Mechanisms of Psychotherapy - 3 cognitive factors
1) Universalization - clients improve when they realize they are not alone, others have similar problems, and human suffering is universal
2) Insight - Growth occurs as clients increasingly come to understand themselves and others and gain diff. perspectives on own motives and behaviors
3) Modeling - People benefit from watching others (modeling after therapist)
Corsini's Nine Mechanisms of Psychotherapy - 3 affective factors
4) Acceptance - reflects the sense of getting unconditional positive regard, especially from therapist
5) Altruism - change can result from the recognition that one is the recipient of love and care of therapist or other mebers of group or from the sense of providing love and care to others and the feeling that one is helping others
6) Transference - identifies the emotional bond that forms between the therapist and the client or between the clients in a group setting
Corsini's Nine Mechanisms of Psychotherapy - 3 behavioral factors
7) Reality testing - change becomes possible when clients experiment with new behaviors in the safety of the therapy hour, receiving support and feedback from the therapist and other group members
8) Ventilation - encompasses those statements attesting to the value of "blowing off steam" through shouting, crying, or displaying anger in a context in which one can still feel accepted
9) Interaction - clients improve when they are able to openly admit to the group that there is something wrong with themselves or their behavior
the way an individual constructs meaning in the world; includes the various beliefs, values, and biases an individual develops as a result of cultural conditioning
Multicultural Intentionality
the ability to generate a maximum number of thoughts, words, and behaviors to communicate with self and others within a given culture; ability to communicate with a variety of diverse groups; ability to formulate plans, act on many possibilities in a culture, and reflect on these actions
4 Components of a Drive
1) Source - underlying need, bodily condition (ie. empty stomach
2) Aim - the elimination or reduction of need (ie. to eat)
3) Object - a physical entity or entire behavior pattern associated with an attempt to achieve the aim of the instinct (ie. food)
4) Impetus - the strength, magnitude, or intensity of the drive
seeks to understand human behavior through an investigatio of inner experience, and to treat psychological problems through a clinical application of that understanding
Defense mechanisms
-automatic forms of response to situations that arouse unconscious fears or the anticipation of "psychic danger"
-denial or distortion of reality
-operation on an unconscious level
-Freud's cornerstone concept; refers to the transfer of feelings originally experienced in an early relationship to other important people in a person's present environment;
-client's reactions to the therapist, as if therapist were person from the past
refers to the therapist's reactions to the patient that may be linked to personal issues the therapist needs to resolve
a force of "not wanting to know" in the patient
refers to sexual energies, different meanings and manifestations at different ages
investment of energy in an object; amount of psychic energy; refer to the process of investing emotional energy in a given situation, task, object, or relationship
Freud's Psychosexual Stages of Development
1) Oral (first year of life)
2) Anal (ages 1-3)
3) Phallic (ages 3-6)
4) Latency (ages 6-12)
5) Genital (ages 13 and on)
Oral Stage
-Desires and gratifications are primarily oral
-sucking, mouthing, biting
-Oral fixations resulting from deprivation
-Basic trust and intimacy
**Exploratory-infants put everything in their mouth
Anal Stage
-Anal zone of primary importance
-Site of tensions and gratifications
-Control of bowels/elimination
-Learning independence, expression of agression and personal power
**Kids interest in feces
Phallic Stage
-Sexual energy assumed by the genitals
-Penis primary object of interest to either gender
-Incestuous desires for parent of opposite gender: Oedipus and Electra Complexes
-Desire to look and to exhibit
**curiosity about bodies
Latency Stage
-Relatively quiet period
-Generally free of conflict
-Sexual interests replaced by play, school, socialization
-Continues to develop gender identity
Genital Stage
-Adult sexual organization begins at puberty
-Old themes of phallic stage are revived
-Tensions surrounding taboos and social norms
-Sexual and moral identity, attachment to others
Freud's Structures of the Mind
1) ID
2) EGO
-Representative of the drives
-Present from birth (infant is "all ID")
-Primary source of psychic energy
-Lacks organization: blind and demanding
-Cannot tolerate tension: discharge and return to homeostasis
-Pleasure Principle: motivated toward pleasure & away from pain/unpleasure
-Primary Process: a way of thinking that is simple & gratification seeking
**"Give me what I want" principle for children
**present in all stages
-"Executive of the Drives"
-Mediator between internal/external worlds
-Outgrowth of interaction with the environment
-The seat of intelligence and rationality
-The most distinctly human ego activity
-Reality Principle: delaying gratification, sometimes pain necessary
-secondary process: the ego searches for objects to satisfy the wishes that the ID creates to represent the organism's needs
**mindfulness-the capacity to pause
**still about getting needs met
-"The Judicial Branch of the Personality"
-Moral Code: handed down from parents and other moral authorities
-Good vs Bad/Right vs Wrong
-Values of society
-Rewards (pride, feeling good about self) and punishments
**striving for perfection, not about pleasure
**functions to persuade ego to be more moralistic
Signal Anxiety
-anticipate and react with anxiety to keep things from being traumatic
-a signal or warning that something really overwhelmingly awful is just about to happen and you had better do something about it quickly if you are to survive physically and mentally
3 Types of Anxiety
1) Reality - fear of danger from the external world; level of anxiety based on how real the threat is
2) Neurotic - internal balance of power within the person; fear that instincts will get out of hand (fear of confrontation)
3) Moral - feeling of conscience (internal); feeling of guilt when you do something against own moral code
-First recognized
-Basis of may other defenses
-painful/threatening thoughts are excluded from awareness
-involuntary removal of something from consciousness
-creates opposition between ID and EGO
-countercathexis: refers to energy the EGO needs to use to keep things repressed
-denial of unpleasant piece of external reality
-often pre-conscious or more accessible to awareness
-closing of one's eyes to reality
-daydreams, recreational activities as a means to escape
Reaction Formation
-actively expressing an opposite impulse
-develop conscious attitude that prevents realization of other dimensions of self
-most often seen in obsessive/compulsive populations
**hatred covers fear of love; child's hatred towards new sibling overdoes kindness (react. form)
-an action with the purpose of disproving or "undoing" harm
-harm is believed to be caused by actions or impulses
-characteristic of compulsive behaviors
**ie. handwashing; hit someone than kiss the
-attributing an impulse to some other person or nonpersonal object in the external world
-often seen in psychotic and Axis II diagnoses
-ex. belief that others are trying to kill the person reflects homocidal thoughts
**kids blame others for actions: ie. imaginary friend
-returning to an earlier phase of development
-simpler means of coping/less demands
-ex. child with new sibling regresses and acts like baby when the baby is getting more attention
-channeling energy into a more socially acceptable source
-substitute offers gratification and often seen praise
-the original impulse becomes unconscious
-ex. sports for aggression; child plays with mud because playing with feces is not acceptable
-discharge impulses by shifting to a safer target
-directing energy toward another object/person when original object/person is not accessible
-ex. hard day so take it out on dog
-ex. road rage-excess energy going towards good target
-Manufacturing reasons to explain an uncomfortable situation/impulse
-"softening the blow"
-sour grapes
-ex. "I did't really want that anyway."
-taking in the values and standards of others
-lessens anxiety by creating an identification
-"identifying with the aggressor"
-ex. "You suck"->saying "You're right" reduces anxiety
-similar to introjection
-enhancing self-worth via identification with others
-protection from a sense of failure or inferiority
-ex. name brands, name dropping->bolsters self-esteem
-masking perceived weaknesses by developing positive traits
-make up for limitations
-"don't see the ways in which I am inferior, look at my accomplishments"
-ex. Napolean complex - defending against anxiety of feeling small by building more muscle
-Person or thing in external environment which is psychologically significant
-"Object relations" refers to attitudes and behaviors toward objects
-concerned with actual object and also internal representations
Latent Content of dreams
-unconscious thoughts/wishes preceding the dream
-ie. dream about school burning down->anxiety about exam is latent content
Manifest Content of dreams
-the conscious experience during the dream
-ie. dream about school burning down->manifest content
Blank Screen
-classic notion of neutrality
-increases clients ability to project
-less of therapist, more of client
Heinz Hartmann's notion of adaptation
-coping with environments
-alloplastic behaviors
-autoplastic behaviors
-successful adaptation creates a more harmonious relationship between self and external world
Alloplastic Behaviors
-anything that modifies exterior
-ie. crying to bring mother into room
Autoplastic Behaviors
-modify ourself to better fit the demands of our environment
Ego Functions
1) Reality Testing
2) Judgment
3) Affect Modulation
4) Self-Esteem Regulation
5) Object Relations
Reality Testing
-understand and accept physical and social reality
-mediating personal wishes and external limits
-arriving at reasonable conclusions pertaining to what is appropriate behavior or acceptable behavior
-drawing realistic conclusions about consequences to behavior
Affect Modulation
-preventing painful affect to enter consciousness
-or managing the expression of them in non-threatening ways
-monitoring the source, intensity, and direction of feeling states
Self-Esteem Regulation
-maintain relatively steady level of positive self-regard
-consistent sense of self-regard maintained in distressing as well as happy situations
Object Relations
-establish and maintain satisfying object ties
-both in current life and in memory
Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Stages
1) Infancy: Trust vs. Mistrust
2) Early Childhood: Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
3) Preschool Age: Initiative vs Guilt
4) School Age: Industry vs Inferiority
5) Adolescence: Identity vs Role Confusion
6) Young Adulthood: Intimacy vs Isolation
7) Middle Age: Generativity vs Stagnation
8) Later Life: Integrity vs Despair
Infancy: Trust vs. Mistrust
-first year of life
-basic sense of trust is developed if basic needs are met
-basic mistrust toward others develops if needs are deprived
-to develop a sense that the world is safe, a "good place"
Early Childhood: Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt
-ages 1-3
-Struggle between self-reliance and self-doubt
-child needs to explore, make mistakes, and test limits
-to realize that one is an independent person who can make decisions
Preschool Age: Initiative vs Guilt
-Basic task is to achieve a sense of competence and initiative
-freedom to select meaningful activities results in positive view of self
-if this freedom is discouraged, guilt develops regarding initiative
-to develop the ability to try new things and to handle failure
-ex. learning to ride a bike
School Age: Industry vs Inferiority
-child needs to expand understanding of world
-develop gender role identity
-setting and attaining personal goals
-to learn basic skills and to work with others
-ex. working in groups with others at school
-corresponds to Freud's latency stage
Adolescence: Identity vs Role Confusion
-transition between childhood and adulthood
-testing limits, breaking dependency, establishing new identity
-clarification of life goals, identity, and overall life meaning
-to develop a lasting, integrated sense of self
Young Adulthood: Intimacy vs Isolation
-Primary task to form intimate relationships
-Friendships and romantic relationships
-Failure results in loneliness, alienation, and isolation
-approx. 18-25 yrs. old
Middle Age: Generativity vs Stagnation
-need to go beyond the self
-involvement in helping the next generation
-reality vs fantasy: discrepancy between what we are and what we wanted to be
-starts between ages 35 and 40
Later Life: Integrity vs Despair
-looking back on life
-ego integrity results from a sense of being personally worthwhile
-failure to see this results in hopelessness, guilt, resentment, and self-rejection
-ages 60-65 and up
2 Broad Categories of need in Object Relations Theory
1) Satisfaction
2) Security
-broad range of physical and emotional desires
-food, warmth, oxygen
-emotional contact with other humans
-simple exercise of capacities and functions
-"tenderness theorem" (sullivan): infants expression of need creates feeling of tenderness in mother
Minimizing anxiety
-disturbances in perception
-threats to integrity or survival (hunger, pain)
-anxiety contagion: anxiety is "caught" from others
-tensions resulting from satisfaction needs
-earliest organization of "self" arises from distinction between anxious and non-anxious states
-traits that cause anxiety in caretaker="not me" self
Object Representation
-object: someone or something whom desire or action is directed
-how object is represented psychologically
-internal mental images
-external world->reality
-internal world-> representation
Self Representation
-mental expression of the self as it is experienced in relationship with objects
-distinguishing object from self
-"Good self" vs. "Bad self"
-Internal phenomenon
-attempt to organize a chaotic environment
-contradictory feelings get isolated
-reduces anxiety generated by the conflict
Introjection (object relations theory)
-taking into the self something that is perceived in the outside world
-positive as well as negative
-ex. someone talking down about themselves could be introject of a parent talking to them that way
Facilitating Environment
-environment facilitates development of the child
-mother is the first "facilitating environment"
-adaptation: refers to environment's adaptation to the infant (infant's needs are paramount, mother needs to adapt)
Good-Enough Mother
-providing sufficiently for the child to get a good start in life
-mother changes and adapts to meet the needs of the child
-meets the spontaneous gestures of the infant
-dependence gradually decreases
Omnipotence (Winnicott)
-infant creates a subjective world in which needs are met
-baby is hungry and along comes the mother
-essentially believes that his hunger created the breast
Transitional Object
-an intermediate area of experience between the subjective object and true object
-external object with an internal representation
-facilitates transition between phases of growth and reduces anxiety
-ex. teddy bear or blanket used to comfort anxiety of loneliness -> reminds them or comfy bed or grandmother
Narcissism: Freud vs Kohut
Freud: saw as withdrawal of libido from external objects; a person with narcissistic disturbance was often deemed "untreatable"

Kohut: defined by the nature/quality of libido; narcissism is a component of normal development
The Grandiose Self
-a child's self-centered view of the world
-need not only for people to love us, but be "in love" with us
-ie. child dancing wants everyone to watch
a healthy self, overall sense of well-being, competence, "togetherness", wholeness, confidence, in control
a sense of falling apart, awkwardness, self-consciousness, lower opinion of self, moodiness, agitation, not focused, disorganized
-any experience that functions to evoke the structured self
-internally and subjectively experienced function
-people, memories, things, pieces of art, places (etc) all serve selfobject functions
5 SelfObject Needs
1) Mirroring
2) Idealizing
3) Alterego or Twinship
4) Adversarial
5) Efficacy
-the need to feel affirmed, confirmed, recognized, accepted, appreciated, delighted in
-confirm a sense of goodness and vigor
-"The Grandiose Self"
-to experience oneself as being part of an admired and respected other, to be accepted by and merge into a calm and powerful other that possesses what is missing in oneself
-create a sense of safety and containment
Alterego or Twinship
-need to experience an essential likeness or sameness with the selfobject (ie. child putting on lipstick like mother)
-provide a felt sense of belonging and create the opportunity for learning
-ex. copying older sibling
-the need to experience a benign opposing force who continues to be supportive and responsive while allowing active opposition
-to be able to assert oneself and confront without loss of responsiveness - confirms autonomy and independence
-ex. child saying "no"
-a need to experience that one has a direct impact on the other and is able to evoke certain selfobject experiences
-builds confidence and self-trust
-ex. child making face, you scream, they continue to do it to get same reaction out of you
The Bipolar Self
-self is constructed and maintained around the mirroring and idealizing selfobject experiences
-the organization of the self becomes "clustered" into two structural locations or two POLES
"The Pole of Ambitions"
-precipitates out of the mirroring selfobject experiences
-locus of the need to be confirmed
-basic ambitions for power and success
-"Driven" by ambitions
"The Pole of Values and Ideals"
-precipitates out of idealizing experiences
-basic idealized goals
-locus of the need to strive toward ideals
-"Led" by ideals
"The Tension Arc"
-stretches between the two POLES because self is pulled/pushed in different directions
-intermediate area of basic talents and skills
-tension between ambitions, skills, and goals
Disorders of the Self
-significant failure to achieve cohesion, vigor, or harmony of the self
-a "selfobject relations disorder"
-disorders due to faulty selfobject eperiences
-narcissistic disorders