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72 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The type of development that states how a child changes over time
example: walking, talking
General Development
The type of development that states a child's transition into their own unquie persons
Individual Differences
What are the four holistic Theories?
3 Big Questions Again
Evolutionary Theory
Ecological Systems Theory
Behaviorism was founded by what three theorists?
Example of a Positive Stimlus
Working at Woods; continually give the children praise when they successfully complete a taste
An example of Positive Punishment
Spanking your child
An example of Negative Stimulus would be
Parent constantly nagging child to clean room.
The child finally does this to only have the parent off the child's case.
Example of Negative Punishment would be
A child being placed in time-out.
The next time child will remember the outcome of a certain action
According to Darwin and the Evolutionary Theory; what has the biggest impact on a child's development?
the child's development follows the same general plan as the evolution of the human species.
What theory views the child as developing within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the surrounding environment.
Ecological Systems Theory
Consists of activities and interaction patterns in the child's immediate surroundings
Miro system
Ecompassess connections between mirosystems
Made up of socail settings that do not contain children but nevertheless affect their experiences in immediate settings
Consists of cultural values, laws, customs, and resources
Who was responsible for an approach that had moved to the forefront of the field because it offers the most differentiated and complete account of contextual influences on children's development
Urie Bronfenbrenner
Explain the "BoBo-Doll" experiment
children hitting the doll
A code example of height
A code that is expressed by the enviroment
Twins that were split by birth, and tested on what would be the cause of similarities between the two twins?
If the twins showed evidence of similarities then this would be high indicator of genes
Twins that are born inside the same zygote
Identical/Mono zygotic Twins
Twins that are born in different zygotes but the same ova
Fraternal/Dizygotic Twins
The IQ accounts for how much of the baby's genes?
Gene-Environment Correlations
Means that the genes we are given at birth tend to guide us into the type of environment that we are exposed to.
Limitations to twin studies
If the environments are totally different then there will be differences in the way that the twins are raised and the outcomes will be off
The correlation that states the parents construct the environment for the young child
Passive Correlation
Authoritrian partening
Environmental supports for aggression
(genes of parents that lead the children to agression, by the actions the parents do)
Passive Correlation/Aggression
Mostly dealing with older children, when the child now chooses the environment in which they feel like would like to be apart of
referred to as: Niche-picking
Active Correlation
Delinquent peer groups, adult criminal behaviors = niche created has turned aggressive.
Children's genes cause them to escalate fights with parents
Active Correlation/Aggression
The primacy of infancy
this deals with, whatever happens to us when we are young effects our development
Life at Shalom
very routinized schedule
once a week discipline meeting
(spanked in multiples of 7)
No hot water
when one kid gets sick they all do
Who takes care of the children at Shalom
hermono and hermonas
What is the policy about adoption for the owners, The Benner's, of Shalom.
They don't allow adoption because they feel your taking away the country's future
What are the two different types of motor skills
Gross and Fine
Large movements
(walking, kicking)
Gross Motor Skills
Movements done with mostly the hands
(writing, grasping the pencil)
Fine Motor Skills
Motor Development starting at the head then down to the toes
(travels downward)
Motor Development starting from center (torso) and outward towards the hands
Walks alone by around what time?
11 months and 3 weeks
Crawls by around what time?
7 months
Baby starts to reach by around what time?
3 months
fetus can suck thumb, stroke cheek
8 weeks
fetus' entire body is sensitive to touch
32 weeks
taste buds look like adults at this point in time
13-15 weeks
fully developed at
18 weeks
last to develop
eye actually open
26 weeks
Baby's hearing perference
Mother and Father's voice
20/20 becomes possible at this point
6 months
Perceiving where an object is in space, also in relation to other object as well
Depth Perception
Explain the Visual Cliff experiment
Baby at 2 months will go passed the checkered floor where as the baby 7 months will not because they have learned their boundaries and understand depth perception
Way to study infant perception
Habituation Studies
How does the ability to reach change a baby's world
(According to the movie: The Baby Human: To Walk)
allows baby to interact with the world for the first time.
first 5 months baby can only reach out in front of baby
Karen Adolph: The Gap
Based on experience the baby will learn better depth perception.
also needs to relearn the boundaries in its surrounding areas.
Karen Adolph: The Slope
The baby needs to decided whether whats safe and the amount of experience helps this.
Head circumference at birth
Growth per year:
2 to 3 "
Body mass index is measured how
weight (kg) / height (m)2
Different types of growth charts for children
BMI Charts
Definition of an overweight child:
95th percentile
At-Risk-of-over-weight for a child:
85th percentile
Overweight for an adult
> 25
Obese for an adult
> 30
Childhood overweight causes these types of issues later in life
Obesity during adulthood
type 11 diabetes
sleep disturbance
increased mortality
Provides all essential energy and nutrients
Protection aganist infections
Decrease rates on infancy mortality
Enhances cognitive development
Benefits from breastfeeding
What is the transition time for solid foods
6 months
Innate Preferences/like or not?
Sweet: would consume more of
Bitter: rejection of taste
Sour: rejection of taste
Salty: neutral response
Explain repeated exposure to infants to overcome neophobic tendencies
If you give a baby something they don't like, try over and over again and get that taste firmilar to them
(around 20 times) they slowly will come around to become assicated with the taste and being to like the taste.
Baby's should not drink cow's milk until what age level?
one year of age
Metabolism differences:
Dealing with breatfeeding
1.Better balance of responses to hormones
2.Optimad weight gained in 1st year
3.Lower risk of overweight during childhod
Infant eating behaviors:
Dealing with breaffeeding
1.Milk expression determined by infant demand
2. Infant learns to stop eating when full
3.Child knows when they are full