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128 Cards in this Set

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This is a theory of criminality which attributes delinquent and criminal behavior to at least three causes:

a. A conscience so overbearing that it arouses feelings of guilt.

a. A conscience so weak that it cannot control the individual’s

b. The need for immediate gratification
The Psychoanalytic theory
Begins with the letter P
This psychologist suggested that a person’s psychological well-being
is dependent on the healthy interaction of:

a. The id, which consists of powerful urges and drives for gratification and satisfaction.

b. The ego, which is the executive personality, acting as the moderator between the id and the superego.

c. The superego, which acts as a moral code or conscience.
Sigmund Freud
He is famous for his theories on dreams
Sigmund Freud proposed that criminality may result if the________ is overactive, or if the_______is not strong enough to control the impulses of the id.
It defines ones personality
Despite the criticism of psychoanalytic theory, three basic principles are of interest to psychologists that study criminology: Which are?
a. The actions and behavior of an adult are understood in terms of childhood development.

b. Behavior and unconscious motives are intertwined, and their interaction must be unraveled if we are to understand criminality.

c. Criminality is essentially a representation of psychological conflict.
Think of the Jackson 5 ABC

But also think of physical movement, from reinforcement, to your class in that order!
Lawrence Kohlberg generated the this theory, which posits that one's moral reasoning arises in three phases. Preconventional, Conventional, & Postconventional levels.
Moral Developmental Theory
For every story there is a message or a _______. Begins with M.

Humans get secondary chromosomes they are_________
This is a level in the moral development theory, which illustrates that children’s moral rules and moral values consist of dos and don’ts to avoid punishment or other types of negative reinforcement
Preconventional level
It defines the instance before it starts
This is the second level in the moral development theory where adolescents typically reason at this level at which they believe in and have adopted the values and rules of society, and they seek to uphold these rules
Conventional level
Think of a place in downtown Minneapolis where they frequently have sales. It is a center.
The third level of the moral development theory, where individuals examine customs and social rules according to their own sense of universal human rights, moral principles, and duties
Postconventional level
The aftermath of it all or _____
According to_________, most delinquents and criminals function at the Preconventional level.
In addition_______also argued argued that basic moral principles and social norms are learned through social interaction and role-playing.
Think of coal minning mixed in with Augsburg and your got
This is a theory developed from research, indicating that shortly after birth, mammals form an emotional bond between infant and mother.

The strength of that bond will affect the child’s social development and ability to perform in his/her future.
Maternal Deprivation/Attachment Theory
This talks about how babies or toddlers cry when being seperated (for whatever reason) from their parents
Studies of attachment by John Bowlby support his theory of attachment, which has what seven features?
a. Specificity
b. Duration
c. Engagement of emotion
d. Ontogeny
e. Learning
f. Organization
g. Biological function

Bowlby suggests that in order to be securely attached, a child must experience a warm, intimate, and continuous relationship with a ________figure.
Mother Figure
Which Parent?
This theory maintains that delinquent behavior is learned through the same psychological processes as any other behavior.
Social learning theory
in_____institutions you______or get education of some sort.
Albert Bandura argues that people learn violence and aggression through behavioral modeling.

The way we behave is socially transmitted through examples, which come primarily from the family, the subculture, and the mass media.

What term describes these passages?
Observational Learning
Last Semester, you went to the Phillips Neighborhood and you did this a lot in order to gain Knowledge via aquaintance with.
a. What people learn from_________is determined by what they themselves do and what happens to them.

b. The individual’s behavior in the first instance and their restraint are said to be "reinforced" by the rewards and punishments they receive.

c. Violence and aggression may be learned, but they may not be expressed until they are elicited.

These describe what?
Direct Experience
Something you learn because you saw it but it wasnt meant for you to learn it so to speak
a. What people learn from_________is determined by what they themselves do and what happens to them.

b. The individual’s behavior in the first instance and their restraint are said to be "reinforced" by the rewards and punishments they receive.

c. Violence and aggression may be learned, but they may not be expressed until they are elicited.

These describe what?
Direct Experience
Initials are DE
Bandura suggests that there are instigators that will elicit behavior via what 5 types of investigatiors
i. Aversive instigators
ii. Incentive instigators
iii. Modeling instigators
iv. Instructional instigators
v. Delusional instigators
initials are

Ernest Burgess and Ronald Akers generated the theory of _____________, suggesting that:

I. The persistence of criminal behavior depends on whether or not it is rewarded or punished

II. The most meaningful rewards and punishments are those given by groups that are important in an individual’s life.
Differential Reinforcement
Promotes behavior via pleasure or pain through a variety of ways
One of four discrete lines which have examined the relationship between personality and criminality.
by denoting how Investigators have looked at the___________differences between the of criminals and non-criminals.
Personality Structure
This talks about what mental aspects make a criminal!
In the_______________, Samuel Yochelson and Stanton Samenow said that criminals share abnormal thinking patterns that lead to decisions to commit crimes.
Criminal Personality
Criminal's thinking patterns represent their type of attitude towards life!
The research of Yochelson and Samenow revealed a common personality profile: the criminals tested showed remarkable similarity in what three aspects?
1) deficient self-control
2) intolerance
3) lack of responsibility
not in control of yourself

therefore will not put up with a lot of crap

and will not assume liability for damages caused
This is a theory where, Eysenck claims that all human personality may be seen in three dimensions:

i. Psychoticism: aggressive, egocentric, and impulsive

ii. Extroversion: sensation-seeking, dominant, and assertive

iii. Neuroticism: low self-esteem, excessive anxiety, and wide mood swings

In addition to this Eysenck also suggests that humans develop a conscience through types of conditions
Conditioning Theory
Think about the exercises you used to do after every football practice
Traditionally, the medical profession viewed mental illness as an absolute condition or status; either you are afflicted with ________or you are not.
A super crazy person is considered what?
This_____________of diagnosis is problematic, and is apparent no where more than in the insanity defense, which calls for proof of sanity or insanity and generally does not allow for gradations in mental functioning.
Dichotomous Scheme
The D scheme or the
Today the mental illness known as_______ ,______ , or________is diagnosed when a personality is characterized by the inability to learn from experience, lack of warmth, and absence of guilt, but not psychosis.
psychopathy, sociopathy, or antisocial personality
think of social psychology and isolation
Psychologists have found that psychopaths, like Eysenck’s extroverts, have a___________, forcing them to constantly seek external stimulation and rendering them less susceptible to learning by direct experience, including punishment.
low internal arousal level
you are not as vulnurable as the average person to react to different types of stimuli so therefore you have a:
When examining criminal behavior, it is easy to make the fundamental psycholegal error, which results when a "cause" for criminal behavior is identified and then it is assumed that any behavior resulting from that cause must be excused by law.

There is a serious likelihood of psycholegal error in cases where lawyers have evoked the insanity defense.

What term describes these passages?
Psychological Causation
The opposite of correlation is?
The study of the physical aspects of psychological disorders.
you class plus biology equals!
Recent research has demonstrated that crime does indeed have_________aspects similar to those found in studies of depression.
Psychology plus biology equals
In the studies done by Modern Biocriminality, There has been evidence that strongly suggests a___________ to criminality.
genetic predisposition
the DNA and RNA which you recieve from both of your parents. before you are officially born
One type of abnormality is the XYY chromosomal male; he receives two Y chromosomes from his father instead of one.

b. Recent studies have discounted the relationship between the extra Y chromosome and criminality.

c. One problem is separating the environmental factors from the genetic predispositions with which they begin to interact at birth.

What is the name of this so called disease?
XYY Syndrome
Within this study:

Researchers have compared identical and fraternal twins in an attempt to determine whether or not crime is genetically predetermined.

The largest study of twins by Christiansen and Mednick found that the chance of their being a criminal twin when the other twin was a criminal was fifty percent for identical twins and twenty percent for same-sex fraternal twins.

This finding lends some support to the hypothesis that some genetic influences increase the risk of criminality.

A weakness of this research is that is may not be valid to assume a common environment for all twins who grow up in the same house at the same time.
Twin Studies
think of your summer job under study conditions
a. One way to conduct this study would be to separate genetic and environmental factors, so you can study the reactions of infants separated at birth from their natural parents and placed randomly in foster homes.

In the largest study of this type, involved researchers hypothesizing that criminality in the biological parents would be associated with an increased risk of criminal behavior in the child.
Adoption Studies
when you give up your child you are giving it up for_______
This argues that all members of society subscribe to one set of cultural values; the values of the middle class.
Strain Theory
it is a cooking utensle which seperates the liquid from the foods like beans or pasta
These claim that the lower class has its own, different set of values, which tends to conflict with the values of the middle class.
Cultural Deviance Theories
It is something which causes negative reaction
These are based on the assumption that the motivation to commit crime is a part of human nature. As such, social control theorists seek to understand why people do not offend.
Social Control Theories
think the famous Janet Jackson song of the 80s beginning with the letter C
Thses theories are used to seek and uncover the reasons for differences in crime rates in the social environment.
Sociological theories
your major
From the Structural-Functionalist perspective, Durkheim introduced the concept of________, which is the breakdown of social order as a result of the loss of standards and values.

As a result of this he firmly believed that as a simple society transforms into a modern, urbanized society, the intimacy needed to sustain a common set of norms declines.
And therefore the decline of the intimacy and solidarity of simple societies results in this.
It sounds like animal but it aint!
1. Durkheim introduced the concept of anomie in a discussion of______.

2. Statistical analyses revealed that these rates increase in periods of rapid change when people are abruptly thrown into unfamiliar situations, for better or worse.

Therefore Anomie can develop whenever the rules that once guided behavior have changed.
It means self-termination!
All non-sociological theories make is that there is a difference between criminals and non-criminals. What
would these four crime theories be?
I) Religious (posessed by demons)
II)Psychological (Mindset-so to speak)
III) One's free will-(This is the basis of our justice system)
IV)Biological-(the offenders have the criminal mind through traits from parents)
In Merton’s Theory of Anomie, he argues that in a class-oriented society, opportunities to get to the top are not equally distributed, with very few members of the lower class ever reaching the top.

His theory of anomie emphasizes the importance of which two elements in society?
a. cultural aspirations, or goals that people believe are worth striving for

b. institutionalized means or accepted ways to attain the desired ends.
Buildings and beliefs, values, etc are ceninems for this
In addition to his theory of Anomie Merton’s__________explains crime in the United States in terms of
the wide disparities in income among the classes.
Strain Theory
Merton acknowledged that the high rate of deviant behavior in the United States cannot be explained solely on the basis of lack of means.
For a society to be stable, what two elements must be fairly well integrated?
Disparity between goals and means fostering frustration
These two goals lead to strain
Merton proposes five modes of adaptation that explain how people adapt to society’s goals and means. What are they?
1. Conformity
2. Innovation
3. Ritualism
4. Retreatism
5. Rebellion
1 c 1 I and 3 Rs
This is argued to be the influence of high-crime rates by suggesting that individuals should succeed by any means necessary, even if those means are illegitimate.
The American dream
It defines wealth, prestigue, and power!
At the crux of the problem is the dominance of economic institutions, as demonstrated by what?
a. The devaluation of noneconomic roles and functions.

b. The accommodation of other institutions to economic needs.

c. The penetration of economic norms.
This argues that crime will only decrease when noneconomic institutions have the capacity to control behavior.
General Strain Theory suggests that there are three basic types of strain-producing events, which are?
a. Strain caused by failure to achieve positively valued goals.

b. Stress caused by the removal of a positively valued stimuli from the individual.

c. Strain caused by the presentation of negative stimuli.
What are the causes of strain?
Robert Agnew revised Merton’s theory to explain what?
More Criminal behavior
The attitudes of the badguys are known as!
_______________attributes crime to a set of values that exist in disadvantaged neighborhoods. However__________is simply defined as any behavior that members of a social group define as violating their norms
Cultural deviance theory

not neccesarily a crime!
Cultural deviance theorists argue that our society is made up of various
groups and subgroups, each with its own standards of___________ .
right and wrong
This states that those who conform to the standards of cultures considered deviant are behaving in accordance with their own norms, but may be breaking the law—the norms of the dominant culture.
This theory focuses on the development of high-crime areas in which there is a disintegration of conventional values caused by rapid industrialization, increased immigration, and urbanization.

Tests of this fell out of favor in the 1970s, but recaptured the attention of social ecologists in the 1980s and 1990s.
Social Disorganization Theory
when one person is very messy they are known as _______________
Their work led to the conclusion that the crucial factor is not ethnicity but the position of the group in terms of economic status and cultural values.
The Park and Burgess Models and
Shaw and McKay’s Work
last initials are P,B, S, and M
______________indicates that delinquency is socially learned behavior, transmitted from one generation to the next in disorganized urban areas.
Cultural transmission
It can be automatic or a stick shift.
This man suggested separating the possible consequences of rising crime rates in neighborhoods into three categories:
a. Psychological and Social Effects
b. Behavioral Effects
c. Economic Effects
Ralph Taylor
initials RT, you once took care of a lizard named this
This theory maintains that people learn to commit crime as the result of contact with antisocial values, attitudes, and criminal behavior patterns. It has nine propositions that explain the process of the transmission of values
Differential Association Theory
Evaluations of this state that;

1. much of the criticism of differential association theory stems from misinterpretation.

2. Some question whether this theory explains all types of crime.

3. Differential association theory suggests that there is an inevitability
about the process of becoming a criminal.
This states that different groups learn different conduct norms and that the conduct norms of some groups may clash with conventional middle class rules.

It does this by focusing on the source of these criminal norms and attitudes.
Culture Conflict Theory
within these groups there are disagreements or the CCT
A subdivision within the dominant culture that has its own norms, beliefs, and values.

These tend to emerge when people in similar circumstances find themselves isolated from the mainstream and band together for mutual support.

They exist within a larger society, not apart from it.
This theory is intended to explain how a delinquent subculture rises, where it is found within social structure, and why it has the particular characteristics that it does.
Albert Cohen’s theory
Einstein's first name is??
____________are rooted in class differentials in parental aspirations, child-rearing practices, and classroom standards.
Delinquent subcultures
Bad people are Ds?
In school, lower-class children are evaluated by middle-class teachers on the basis of a_______________.
Middle-class measuring rod
Standards which are unfamiliar to certain cultures
The relative position of a youngster’s family in the____________determines the problems the child will have to face throughout life.
Social Structure
The building blocks of society
Cohen argues that lower-class children experience status frustration and strain, to which they respond by adopting one of three roles.

In this role, he argues that some people hang out in the neighborhood with their peer group, spending the day in some group activity, such as gambling or athletic competition.

i. Most lower-class boys become this.

ii. Eventually, they get menial jobs and live conventional lifestyles.
Corner Boys
the edge of the room is known as
Cohen argues that lower-class children experience status frustration and strain, to which they respond by adopting one of three roles:

In this role, he argues that people continually strive to live up to middle-class standards, but their chances for success are limited because of academic and social handicaps.

i. There are very few people in the lower class who are this.
College Boys
Augsburg is a___________
Cohen argues that lower-class children experience status frustration and strain, to which they respond by adopting one of three roles:

In this role, he argues that lower-class people band together to form a subculture in which they can define status in ways that seem attainable.

I. This is achieved through reaction formation.

II. These boys turn middle-class norms upside down, thereby making conduct right in their subculture precisely because it is wrong by the norms of the larger culture.
Delinquent boys
Gang members, bad people, are known as what
This theory was developed by Richard Cloward and Lloyd Ohlin.

It begins with the assumption that conventional means to conventional success are not equally distributed among the socioeconomic classes, that lack of means causes frustration for lower-class youths, and that criminal behavior is learned and culturally transmitted.

The common solution to shared problems leads to the formation of delinquent subcultures

Therefore, Cloward and Ohlin suggest that lower-class delinquents remain goal-oriented. The type of delinquent behavior they engage in depends on the illegitimate opportunities available to them.
The theory of differential opportunity
all people get chance but these chances are not all the same therefore the theory is of DO
These gangs emerge in areas where conventional and illegitimate values and behavior are integrated by a close connection of illegitimate and legitimate businesses.
Criminal gangs
the most common type of street gangs in America
These gangs emerge in neighborhoods characterized by transience and instability, which offer few opportunities to get ahead in organized criminal activities

a. Their goal is to gain a reputation for toughness and destructive violence.

b. And to arise in lower-class areas where neither criminal nor conventional adult role models exercise much control over youngsters.
Conflict gangs
gangs emerging from disagreement/ tension
The gangs have members that have been unsuccessful in both the legitimate world and the illegitimate worlds of organized criminal activity and violence-oriented gangs.

a. Members are labeled double failures.

b. This subculture is characterized by a continuous search for getting high through alcohol, atypical sexual experiences, marijuana, hard drugs, or a combination of these.
Retreatist gangs
This relates, and infact is the root cause, for alcoholic robers
Not all lower-class youngsters who are unable to reach society’s goals become members of these three types of gangs. Many chose to accept their situation and to live within its constraints.

True of False
These two men sought to explain violent criminal behavior among lower-class young urban males.

They argue that in some subcultures behavior norms are dictated by a value system that demands the use of force or violence.

C. Violence is not used in all situations, but it is frequently an expected response.

D. Violence is not considered to be antisocial.
Marvin Wolfgang and Franco Ferracuti
Think about Mozart and the old runningback of the pittsburgh steelers with #32
This person hypothesizes that juvenile delinquency is not rooted in the rejection of middle-class values; it stems from lower-class culture, which has its own value system.
Walter Miller
initials are WM
This type of system has evolved as a response to living in disadvantaged neighborhoods characterized by single-parent households.
Value System
Worth something we tend to _____ it
With in this theory, Gang norms are the adolescent expression of the lower-class culture
Miller's Theory
not a bud light theory but a M light one
Miller has identified six focal concerns to which lower-class males give persistent attention which are?
1. Trouble
2. Toughness
3. Smartness
4. Excitement
5. Luck
6. Autonomy
When studying female delinquent gange, researchers are focusing on attention on two types of female gangs which are?
1. Gangs that are affiliates of male gangs.


2. Gangs that consist of all females.
all W or intersexual
Anne Campbell’s research suggests that females join gangs for the same reasons as males, which are?
mutual support, protection, and a sense of belonging.
From this they too gain status by living up to the value system of their gang.
Subcultural theory assumes that individuals engage in delinquent or criminal behavior because:
1. legitimate opportunities for success are blocked

2. criminal values and norms are learned in lower-class slums.
they are bad because in the words of M.C. Hammer they are to legit to quit. lol
Gang research suggests increased female participation in gangs, and in gang-related activities, but not including serious delinquent acts and drug abuse

True or False
Gangs whose criminal activities include physical assaults, theft, burglary, and distribution of illegal drugs.
Delinquent gangs
These gangs attach themselves to an ideology that targets racial and ethnic groups; physical assaults and even murder are justified by their belief system.
Hate gangs
Examples include the KKK and skinheads
Gangs affiliated with this practice worship of specific gods, desecration of graveyards, ritualistic drug use, animal sacrifice, various witchcraft and pagan rituals, and submission to sexual abuse or pain.
Satanic gangs
Irrational genocide from dictators like Stalin or Hitler might fit into this category
Experts note that many affluent gang members come from broken, unstable, or extremely dysfunctional homes. Their problems stem from problems like
divorce, separation, physical or sexual abuse, or a drug-or alcohol-addicted parent.
Think family
This was a non-profit program, based on opportunity theory.

It provided employment, social services, teacher training, legal aid, and other crime-prevention service on New York’s Lower East Side.

Little was done to evaluate the program’s success, and the project was abandoned.
Mobilization for Youth (MOBY)
The whale known as ______ dick
Based on Hirschi’s Social Control Theory. This part focuses on the informal systems of social control.
The Microsociological Perspective
Unlike Macro there is!
In this theory, Hirschi posited four social bonds that promote socialization and conformity:

a. Attachment: attachment to parents, school, and to peers

b. Commitment: commitment to or investment in conventional lines of action, including vocational aspirations, educational expectations, and educational aspirations

c. Involvement: involvement or preoccupation with activities that promote the interests of society

d. Belief: consists of assent to the society’s value system
Social Control Theory
Think of a famous 80s Janet Jackson song which starts with a C
Unlike it's little counter-part, in Hirschi's theory this perspective explores formal systems for the control of groups.
Macrosociological Perspective
the big picture is a _____ level analysis
proposed that juveniles sense a moral obligation to be bound by the law.

When that bond is not present, the youth may enter into a state of this or a period of when he or she exists in limbo between conventional behavior and criminal behavior, postponing commitment to either lifestyle.

However, the empirical support for this theory is not clear.

What is his Theory?
Drift Theory
This theory gets it name because it concists how the perpetrator shifts the issues of this crime in order to try and persuade authorities fo ease up a little or not puhism the person at all.

The methods include:

Denial of responsibility ("some type of social force made me do this!")

Denial of injury ("No one was hurt, they got insurance, or the perp showing false concern about the victim's saftey).

Denial of the victim("anyone would have done the things that I did under these types of circumstances!")

Condemnation of condemner, ("I bet that the judge and everyone on the jury has done worse than I have!),

or Appealing to higher loyalties ("people say I am the nicest guy, people will tell you this is not my usual behavior, i am usually a good guy).
This person suggested that delinquency is the result of the failure of control mechanisms:

1. a failure to internalize socially accepted and prescribed norms of behavior;

2. a breakdown of internal controls; and

3. a lack of social rules that prescribe behavior in the family, the school, and other important social groups.
Albert J. Reiss
AJR initials
Jackson Toby proposed a model to explain delinquency.

1. He discusses the complimentary role of neighborhood social disorganization and an individual’s own stake in conformity.

2. Toby posits that differing stakes in conformity, or correspondence of behavior to society’s patterns, norms, or standards, is what accounts for the difference in why one person in a neighborhood may offend, while another does not.

3. Toby’s work reminds researchers that when attempting to explain crime, there should be a discussion of group-level explanations and individual-level explanations.
Personal and Social control model
Kunta Kinte's slave name was. You also have a cousin name this but vise versa, whose nickname is stretch!
This assumes that for every individual there exists a containing external structure and a protective internal structure, both of which provide defense, protection, or insulation against delinquency.

The outer containment is a structural buffer that holds a person in bounds.

While, the inner containment is personal control ensured by a number of personal characteristics.

And finally the reckless explains that the probability of deviance is directly related to the extent to which internal pushes, external pressures, and external pulls are controlled by one’s inner and outer containment.
Containment Theory
when you put food in the fridge you store it in a _________
Travis Hirschi and___________'s general theory of crime suggests that offenders have poor self-control, as a result of inadequate socialization and poor child-rearing practices, coupled with poor attachment.
Michael Gottfredson
Think of a name that starts with M and Gilbert Gottfried!
This combines a criminological theory, such as differential association, with a number of social controls.
Integrated theory
the opposite of segregation
These theories of crime are all explanations of onset, continuance, escalation, de-escalation, and desistance of offending behavior.
Developmental/life course theories
This theory suggests that the reactions of other people and the subsequent effects of those reactions create deviance
Labeling theory
You put this in a tape when you record something
Labeling theory emanates from a group of scholars, who viewed the human self as formed through a process of
Social interaction.
When you talk to another person you are doing what
As an assumption of the labeling theory this person contended that there are two kinds of deviant acts:

Primary and Secondary Deviations
Edwin Lemert
In Edwin Lemert's assumptions of the labeling theory he states that_________ are the initial deviant acts that bring on the first social response; these acts do not affect the individual’s self-concept.
Primary Deviations
The main thing is also known as
In the assumptions of the Labeling Theory made by Edwin Lemmert, he states that ___________ are the acts that follow the societal response to the primary deviation; these acts result from the change in self-concept brought about by the labeling process
Secondary deviations
Taking college courses in high school are referred to as post_________ classes
During this era of protest, arrests of middle-class youth increased dramatically.

As a result, this led people to ask whether arrests were being made for behavior that was not really criminal, and whether the criminals were the people in government.

What era was this?
Think of social movements such as The Civil Rights Movement and Watts Riots.
This person wrote states that "Deviance is not a quality of the act but rather a consequence of the application by others of rules and sanctions to an "offender."
Howard S. Becker
This person states that Human behavior is deviant to the extent that it becomes viewed as involving a personality discreditable departure from a group's normative expectation, and it slicts interpersonal and collective reactions that serve to isolate, treat, correct, or punish those who school to behave in this way.
Kai Erickson
This person was known as the leading labeling theorist of the 1960s.

He elaborated on the explanations created by sociologist Kai Erickson. By stating that; human behavior is deviant to the extent that it comes to be viewed as involving a personality discreditable depature from a group's normative expectation, and it elicts interpersonal and collective reations that serve to isolate, treat, correct, or punish those who violate a norm.
Edwin Schur
Labeling theory has been crucial in calling attention to the way individuals are processed through what type of American system?
criminal justice system.
it has now become a major which includes working in courts, prissions, juvy detentions, etc.
This is a model of the Conflic theory, which states that criminal lawbreaking assumes that members of society for the most part agree on what is right and wrong, and that law is the codification of these shared social values.

According to this model, the law is a mechanism to settle disputes that arise when individuals stray too far from what the community considers acceptable.
The Consensus Model
Con____ Model
This term has its roots in rebellion and the questioning of values.

Those who believe in this, suggest that laws do not exist for the collective good, but that they represent the interests of specific groups that have the power to get them enacted.

This theory holds that the people who possess the power work to keep the powerless at a disadvantage through creating laws that protect their interests.

Proponents of this theory emphasize the relativity of norms to time and place.
Conflict theory
argument is also known as!
This person suggests that the entire process of lawmaking and crime control is a direct reflection of conflict between interest groups, all trying to get laws passed in their favor and to gain control of the police power.
George Vold
This person has the same first name as our president
This person argues that the consensus model is utopian.

a. Social change is constant, social conflicts are ever-present, disintegration and change are ongoing, and all societies are characterized by coercion of some people by others.

b. The most important characteristics of class are power and authority.

c. Conflict can lead to a breakdown in social order, or to a positive change in the social order.
Ralf Dahrendorf
This person explained that criminality is a social status imposed on a class subordinate to the lawmakers.
Austin Turk
Yeah baby! Arch enemy is Dr. Evil
According to Marx, society has always been organized in such a hierarchical fashion, with the state representing the interests of those who own the means of production, not the common good.

2. Capitalism breeds egocentricity, greed, and predatory behavior.

3. People that are kept in a state of poverty will rebel by committing crimes.

What theory is the foundation of his argument?
Radical Theory
it is also a political party which starts with R and it aint the Republicans
This person argued that in a modern capitalist society, people are not altruistic.

People concentrate on profit rather than in the needs of the community.

Capitalism encourages criminal behavior by creating a climate that is less conducive to social responsibility.
Willem Adriaan Bonger
In___________________, Rusche and Kirchheimer advance that punishments have always been related to the modes of production and the availability of labor, rather than to the nature of the crimes themselves.

By revealing that the severe and cruel treatment of offenders had more to do with the value of human life and the needs of the economy than with preventing crime.
Punishment and the Social Structure
discipline and the building blocks of society
Radical Criminology since the 1970s
Is more concerned with the way the system controlled people than with the traditional _______________ explanations of crime and criminality.
Sociological and Psychological
think about your class at Hamline!
The capitalist ruling class uses the criminal law to impose its will in the rest of the people in order to protect its property and to define as criminal any behavior that threatens the
Status Quo.
you get this out of a book and the more value is has the higher its prestigue is!
This person attacks Marxist criminology for focusing solely on class interests and ignoring the reality that society is made up of many interest groups.
think of a Clock so to speak
these types find that the cause of female criminality is male aggression, as well as men’s attempts to control and subordinate women.

Socialist feminists view female criminality in terms of class, gender, and race oppression.
Radical Feminist Theory
A political group, not repubican, and lady like
Recognize street crime as an inevitable outcome of social and political deprivation.

They seek a crime-control agenda capable of being implemented in a capitalist system that will protect the more vulnerable members of the lower classes from crime and the fear of crime.
Left Realism
Opposite of falsify and right
This is the belief that crime and punishment have a reciprocal effect on each other, with one causing the other.

b. advocates the redistribution of power.

c. Instead of opposing the circumstance in an organized fashion, anarchists choose to wage the struggle with chaos and disorder.
Abolitionist Theory
In 1865 slavery was_______
This is the belief that the destruction of communities by the state is the root of crime.
Anarchist theory
it is the opposite of a Monarchy government
Examines the location of a specific crime and the context in which it occurred in order to understand and explain crime patterns.

Unlike traditional criminological theories, this type criminology assumes that people are criminally motivated.
Environmental Criminology
E Criminology
Ronald Clarke and Derek Cornish developed this perspective based on:
a. Utilitarianism
b. Pleasure-Pain Principle

This perspective assumes that people make decisions with a goal in mind, and that these decisions are made with free will.

it examines a specific offense committed at a particular time and place, based on a set of choice structuring properties.

There are characteristics of the offender and characteristics of the offense.
Rational-Choice Perspective
People who make stupid decisions are known as I
Lawrence Cohen and Marcus Felson suggest that a crime can occur only if there is:
a. A likely offender
b. A suitable target
c. Absence of a capable guardian
d. A revision of the approach added the absence of a personal handler.

These patterns of work, play, and leisure time affect the convergence in time and place of motivated offenders without a handler, suitable targets, and the absence of guardians.
Routine-Activity Approach
Think of exercise points you gain via weight watchers

and think of your method or________or exercise a week!
These have been developed for the purposes of understanding crime from the victim’s perspective, or with the victim in mind.
Theories of victimization
the opposite of a perpetrator is
These theories argue that variations in lifestyle affect the number of situations with high victimization risks that a person experiences.

This type theory of victimization centers on nine propositions.

This theory, along with the routine-activity approach, present some basic guidelines for reducing one’s chances of victimization.
Lifestyle Theories
how you live it cant get no clearer than this!
Marvin Wolfgang found that many victims actually bring upon themselves the attack that led to their murder.

He coined the term "victim precipitation
Victim-Offender Interaction
when the two ends of a crime (the attacker and attackee) are socializing they are
___________of crime have been used to deal with the following crime issues:

a. Burglars and burglaries
b. Robbers and robberies
c. Hot products
d. College campus crime
situational theories
Environmental criminology, the rational choice perspective, and the routine activities approach all identify situations in which crime is likely to occur.
These focus on the specific characteristics of situations in order to determine which factors account for the initial, as well as multiple, victimizations.

They dispel the misconception that crime is uniformly distributed.

Offenders choose targets based on the knowledge they gained in the previous victimization about the risks and rewards of a particular offense.
Repeat Victimization
it is a constant crime which hurts a person
Certain types of crimes are committed in specific places.

Efforts to prevent victimization should be focused on the place, and not the potential victim.
Hot Spots of Crime
think of a foxy brown song back in the day known as the HS
These theories of crime focus on the interactions among the victim, the offender, and the place.

By combining theories of crime with lifestyle theory, situational factors, and place considerations to examine victimization rates, criminological research has added a new dimension to explaining crime.
Interrelatedness of Theories