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48 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Theory
A framework that can be used to comprehend and explain events
Sociological Theory
a set of principles and definitions that tell how societies operate and how people relate to one another and respond to their surroundings
Research
A fact gathering and Fact explaining enterprise governed by strict rules
Research Methods
techniques that sociologists and other investigators use to formulate meaningful research questions and to collect, analyze, and interpret data or observations in ways that allow other researchers to verify results
Function
the contribution of a part to the order and stability within the larger system
Manifest functions
A parts intended or anticipated effects in order and stability
Latent Functions
Unintended or unanticipated effects on order and stability
Dysfunctions
Disruptive consequences to society or to some segment in society
Latent Dysfunctions
Unintended unanticipated disruptions to order and stability
Social Interaction
Everyday events in which two people communicate interpret and respond to each other’s words and actions
Symbol
any kind of physical phenomenon to which people assign a name meaning or value
Scientific method
An approach to data collection in which knowledge is gained through observation and its truth confirmed through verification
Objectivity
A state in which the researcher’s personal subjective views do not influence the outcomes of the researchers
Concepts
Thinking and Communication tools that are used to give and receive complex information efficiently and to frame and explain observations
Research design
a plan for gathering data the specifies who and what will be studied and the method of data collection
Methods of data collection
The procedures a researcher follows to gather relevant data.
Traces
Materials or other forms of physical evidence that yield information about human activity
Documents
Written or printed materials used in research
Territories
Settings that have borders or that are set aside for particular activities.
Households
All related and unrelated persons who share the same dwelling
Small groups
Two to about 20 people who interact with one another in meaningful ways
Populations
The total number of individuals, traces, documents, territories, households, or groups that could be studied
Sample
a portion of the cases from a larger population
Random Sample
A type of sample in which every case in the population has an equal chance of being selected
Representative Sample
A type of sample in which those selected for study have the same distribution of characteristics as the population chosen for the study
Sampling Frame
a complete list of every case in the population
Self-administered Questionnaire
A set of questions given to responders who read the instructions and fill in the answers themselves
Interviews
Face-to-face or telephone conversations between an interviewer and a respondent in which the interviewer asks questions and records the respondent’s answers
Structured Interview
An interview in which the wording and sequence of questions are set in advance and cannot be changed during the interview
Unstructured Interview
An interview in which the question-answer sequence is spontaneous, open-ended, and flexible
Observation
a research technique in which the researcher watches, listen to, and records behavior and conversation as they happen
Nonparticipant observation
A research technique involving detached watching and listening in which the researcher does not interact with the study participants.
Participant observation
A research technique in which researchers interact directly with study participation
Secondary Sources (archival data)
Data that have been collected by other researchers for some other purpose
Variable
Any trait or characteristics that can change under different conditions or that consists of more than one category
Dependent variable
The variable to be explained or predicted
Independent variable
the variable that explains or predicts the dependent variable
Hypothesis
A trial explanation put forward as the focus of research that predicts how independent and dependent variables are related and how the dependent variable will change when there is a change in the independent variable
Operational definitions
Clear, precise definitions and instructions about how to observe and measure concepts and variables
Reliability
the extent to which the operational definitions gives consistent results
Validity
The degree to which an operational definition measures what it claims to measure
Ascribed Characteristics
any physical trait that is biological in origin and/or cannot be changed but to which people assign overwhelming significance
Manifest Dysfunctions
A parts anticipated disruptions to order and stability
Generalizability
the extent to which findings can be applied to the larger population from which the sample is drawn
Correlation coefficient
a mathematical representation that quantifies the extent to which a change in one variable is associated with a change in another variable
Spurious Correlation
A correlation that is coincidental or accidental because some third variable is related to both the independent and dependent variables
Control variables
Variables suspected of causing a spurious correlation
Ascribed Characteristics
any physical trait that is biological in origin and/or cannot be changed but to which people assign overwhelming significance