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21 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Philosophical Naturalism
Sin is due to man’s essential finitude or creaturely weakness.
Philosophical Idealism
Sin is due to bodily appetites or instincts, or to man’s possession of a body.
Pelagian view of Sin and Imputation
Every human soul is immediately created in a state of innocence, free from depravity. Adam’s sin is an evil example. Death is not a consequence of sin, but is the natural outcome of mortal life. Man is a sinner because he sins, not because he is born sinful. What God requires us to do – lead holy lives – we must be able to do. Socinians and Unitarians hold this view. Pelagianism was condemned at the Synod of Carthage (418) and at the Council of Ephesus (431).
Augustinian view of Sin and Imputation
Adam transmitted sin to his progeny by means of natural generation. The entire human race existed seminally in Adam.
Semi-Pelagian view of Sin and Imputation
Attempting to find a middle way between Pelagianism and Augustine, the John Cassian, Vincent of Lerins and others suggested that Adam’s sin caused spiritual weakness, rather than fallenness, in humanity. If Pelagians identify man as spiritually well, and Augustinians as spiritually dead, the Semi-Pelagians view man as spiritually sick. We suffer from a spiritual deficiency due to Adam’s fall. This is the most common view in Roman Catholicism, and some would categorize Finney as Semi-Pelagian
Arminian view of Sin and Imputation
Adam’s sin causes guilt, depravity, and punishment in the human race, but God’s prevenient grace enables man to cooperate with God to overcome this state. Charles Wesley is representative of the Arminian view.
Federal/Covenantal view of Sin and Imputation
Adam was appointed head of the human race by God. God entered into covenant with Adam, agreeing to give eternal life on condition of obedience. The race is condemned on the basis of Adam’s sin. Cocceius (1603-69) and Turretin (1623-87) held this view.
New School view of Sin and Imputation
All men are born with a physical and moral constitution that predisposes them to sin. And all do sin when they arrive at moral consciousness. The original predisposition may be called sin since it inevitably eventuates in sin, but only voluntary acts are actually sin. So, God imputes to men only their own acts of rebellion. A reaction to Puritan anthropology, New School theology is represented by Timothy Dwight.
Neo-orthodox view of Sin and Imputation
For Barth, the Fall is representative of what happens to everyone. We all have our own “little scene in the Garden of Eden” (CD IV.1, 508). Both Barth and Brunner reject the reality of an historical Adam and Eve.
Liberation Theology view of Sin and Imputation
“Sin is a collective reality manifested in socio-political situations” (IT, 190). Whether oppression of the poor, or an ethnic group, or of group based on sexual identity, sin is not an individual act, but an act of a society. The solution for sin is social and political freedom.
The issue: Is Jesus Christ “able not to sin” (potuit non peccare) or “not able to sin” (non potuit peccare).
A denial of the humanity of Jesus, associated with 2nd century gnosticism (e.g., Valentius).
2nd century Judaizers deny the genuine deity of Jesus.
Also known as dynamic monarchianism, associated with Theodotus the Tanner, Theodotus the Banker (late 2nd c.) and especially Paul of Samasota (3rd c.)
Modern/Contemporary Christiology.
Kenotic Christology
Gottfried Thomasius (The Person and Work of Christ)
More radical views: Godet, Clarke, Mackintosh
Search for the Historical Jesus – Reimarus, Strauss, Wrede
Existential Christology
Tillich, Bultmann
Liberation Christology
Leonardo Boff
Black Christology
James Cone
Feminist Christology
Rosemary Radford Reuther
Process Christology
David Ray Griffin, John Cobb, Jr.
The Jesus Seminar
Funk, Mack