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99 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
actual impediments
impediments that come & go
actus humanus
person had knowledge and freedom in their action
canons of distributions
justice; ways of deciding who gets what
categorical imperative
norms that set the standard (doesn't say how to act or what to do)
casuistry
argument by analogy; has three steps
3 steps of casuistry
1. setting out the facts
2. look for & choose a precedent
a. raises some basic moral problem
b. more ethically certan than our cost
3. tentative resolution on the basis of the precedent
common good
what's best for the overall population (justice)
competent authority
can declare war; if properly know/uses power
conscience
a judgment of reason by which persons recognize the moral quality of concrete actions
Divine
conscience as capacity (synderesis)
Synderesis
recognize distinction between right & wrong & makes a difference as to whether an action is right or wrong
conscience as a process
practical reasoning (shaped by background; if bad background, conscience can be erroneous
conscience as a decision
follow judgment that you have mode as to rightness/wrongess of situation
self & other
conscience as something else (head, heart, gut)
relation between conscience & feeling of guilt
feeling guilty vs. being guilty
feeling of guilt when it is inappropriate
binding force of conscience
moral obligation oto follow conscience
deductive argument
applies to particular case (syllogism)
syllogism
has universal premise, minor premise, general conclusion
direct action
action chosen as end or means to an end
divine command ethics
voluntarist ethical system; right or wrong based on whether we fail to confirm to God's will
end (3-font theory)
goal; purpose/motive for action
evaluative knowledge
appreciation of figures & values
forgoing aggressive medical treatment
appropriate only if it does offer proportionate benefit & doesn't impose excessive burden
habitual impediments
happens constantly
Immanuel Kant
Deotological; humans are rational by nature
1. reason is to make the will good
2. god will if only thing that is good in of itself
3. motivation: to do one's duty
Law (not civil or biblical) but what humans think of
indirect action
consequences of an action
invincible ignorance
(acutal impediment) ignorance when one could not have known
John Stuart Mill
teleological--utilitarianism
-goal of life is happiness
-happiness- pleasure & the absence of pain
-not a hedonist- not one who lives for physical pleasure
-self-sacrifices if the greater good is for the greatest #
-look at consequences
just cause
jus ad bellum; defense of self & neighbor; last resort
Lloyd LeBlanc
father murdered daughter; prays for killer; forgives; was distrubed by public execution
marginalized persons
people whose noise is hard to hear in society (poor, homeless)
materially unjust aggressor
one who aggreses; can defend against material
Millard Farmer
lawyer who helped Prejean
Mr. Phelps
supports death penalty but refuses to watch them
object (3-font theory)
what one did; the action
pacifism
christian witness pacificsm--deonotoligcal because we're not following Jesus teachings
Practical pacifism
teleological because of destructiveness of war
PAS (Physician Assisted Suicide)
gives person means & prescriptions to take one's own life
Patrick Sonnier
put to death; didn't kill people; lost wasn't given a fair trial
principle of double effect
discerning between direct/indirect
direct action
chosen as end or means to an end
indirect action
if side effect of some other goal can't do anything morally evil even for good motive
4 steps of principle of double-effect
1. not intrinsically evil
2. agent's end or goal is for good effect.
3. undesirable effect must not be means to the good effect
4. must have proportionate reason to permit the bad effect
proportionality
level of response must equal level of aggression
reasonable hope for success
can't go into war w/ no chance; too many live lost
right intention
overall goal is to restore peace
Sister Helen Prejean
became spiritual advisor & advocate against capital punishment
slippery slope argument
allowing X could lead to Y
absolute norms
negative material norms w/ no exceptions (protestant ethics)
Actus hominis
person did not have knowledge or freedom of responsibility
autonomy
something is drive by itself. (the right to make decisions by oneself)
Cartesian ideal agent
who is in best position to make moral decision
categorical freedom
freedom of choice
cognitive dissonance
changing our beliefs to affirm our action
comparative justice
abuses on both sides; must be on better moral side
confirmation bias
when looking at disconfirming evidence, people will find a way to criticize, distort, or dismay it so they can maintain or strengthen existing beliefs
Debbie Morris
disobedience to law; failure to do duty
discrimination (non combatantimmunity)
must respect non-combatents (jus in bello)
Eddie Soonier
brother of P. Sonnier & murderer of Pat's convicted crime
euthanasia
the "mercy killing" of one who has no chance of survival; 2nd party performs an act to take one's life
extraordinary means
offers no proportionate benefit (based on person) imposes excessive burden
formal norms
express value
doesn't specifically tell one what to do
Harveys
people whose son was victimized & killed;pro-capital punishemnt
impediments
factors taht gen in the way of moral responsibility because they limit knowledge or freedom or both. Acutal & habitual
intrinically ex objecto
always wrong
jus ad bellum
conduct before war; just cause, dencse of self & neighbor
A in bello
conduct in war; discrimination & proportionality
last resort
war is last resort
Eddie Soonier
brother of P. Sonnier & murderer of Pat's convicted crime
euthanasia
the "mercy killing" of one who has no chance of survival; 2nd party performs an act to take one's life
extraordinary means
offers no proportionate benefit (based on person) imposes excessive burden
formal norms
express value
doesn't specifically tell one what to do
Harveys
people whose son was victimized & killed;pro-capital punishemnt
impediments
factors taht gen in the way of moral responsibility because they limit knowledge or freedom or both. Acutal & habitual
intrinically ex objecto
always wrong
jus ad bellum
conduct before war; just cause, dencse of self & neighbor
A in bello
conduct in war; discrimination & proportionality
last resort
war is last resort
Major Coody
knew & talkked to people on death row; had a moral issue w/ capital punishemnt; didn't want to kill theose peopel
material norms
give specific indicator of what ot do/ not to do
mike varnado
found, got Robert lee Willie to confess
mortal Sin
grave matter (seriouisly wrong)
full knowledge
deliberate consent (must be all 3 rules of sin is venial)
Nozick's theory of justice
justice protects property rights
ordinary means
means to preserve life
paradigm case
learn rule & what goes under that rule
passions (Aquinas)
a movement in the soul as a response to another human or thing
precedent
praises some basis moral problem; more ethically certain than a present case
proof-texting
using something just because it sounds good
PSDA (patient self-determination Act)
statest have to make compiletion of laws on death
Rene Descartes
person best able to make moral decision is one w/ no emotional involvement
Robert Lee Willie
death row inmate, executed
situation ethics
how ethics apply in different cirumstances
social sin
the way society is set up that promotes sin on a large scale
speculative knowledge
knowledge of facts & figures
3-font theory
object--what one did
end--goal; puropose for action
circumstances--events surrounding action
utilitarianism
John Stuart Mill--goal of human life is happiness
telelogical
going toward a goal
Toulmin & Jonsen
wrote book revivng interest in casuistry
vincible ignorance
choose to ignore