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115 Cards in this Set

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RELIGION
provides an overall way of seeing and relating to ourselved, other people, the world in which we live , and possible realities beyond this world
MONOTHEISTIC
religions that believe in one God
POLYTHEISTIC
many gods
AGNOSTIC
Someone who is unsure about the existence of God or gods
ATHEISTIC
Someone who disbelieves or denies that God or gods exist
DENOMINATIONS
A particular church tradition, having a common doctrine and organizational structure, within the Christian faith
REVELATION
(1) God’s act of disclosing God’s self to believers. (2) that which has been revealed by God through nature and human conscience, but also through the Bible, mystical experience, and worship, about God and God’s relationship to creation.
FAITH
(1) a relationship of trust in God; (2) personal insight or knowledge in action about God; (3) belief in a set of propositions about God, humanity, and the created order that carry a claim to be true
THEOLOGY
An intellectual discipline that explores (religious) reality form a particular perspective, namely god as ultimate ground and goal of all reality; in the words of Anselm, it is “faith seeking understanding”
BIBLICAL THEOLOGY
a study of the written documents found in the Bible, how thee documents were formed, how they were selected to be part of the Bible what they meant to the original “authors” and “audience” and what they might mean for contemporary belief and practice
HISTORICAL THEOLOGY
A study of the development of the Christian faith in the carious periods of history after the biblical era
SYSTEMATIC THEOLOGY
A study of the basic formulations of Christian belief (called “dogmas” or “doctrines”) and their relationship to one another.
MORAL THEOLOGY
Focuses on the values arising from Christian beliefs and attempts to identify the behaviors that are congruent and incongruent with these values
ANTHROPOLOGY
The study of human beings or a particular view about the nature of human beings. Christian anthropology is primarily concerned with theological explanations concerning humanity’s relationship to God, the human condition, and the promise or potential of a renewed humanity.
SOTERIOLOGY
Study of salvation
SCRIPTURES
Sacred texts
CANON
List of books regarded as authoritative for a given religious community
TESTAMENT
a synonym for the word covenant, which we can define provisionally as a sacred or formal agreement between two parties
TANAKH
an acronym for the three parts of the Jewish Scriptures
APOCRYPHA
in Protestant bibles
VERBAL INSPIRATION
God dictated the Bible to its human authors
BIBLICAL INERRANCY
Without error
YHWH
The name for God most commonly used in the Hebrew Bible/ Old Testament
TORAH
(1) The Hebrew scriptures as a whole; (2) the first five books of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament, also know as the Pentateuch or the Law; (3) the Jewish Law, or system of laws, believed to have been revealed by God to Moses and set down in writing in the first five books of the Old Testament
PENTATEUCH
The First five books of the Hebrew Bible or Old Testament, also known a the Torah or the Law
YAHWIST
according to the documentary hypothesis, the earliest of the four sources that were ventually combined to form the Pentateuch, written around the 9th Century BCE
ELOHIST
according to the Documentary Hypothesis, the second earliest of the four sources that were eventually combined to form the Pentateuch, written around the 8th century
DEUTERONOMIST
according to the Documentary Hypothesis, the third of the four sources that were written around the 7th-6th centuries B.C.E.
PRIESTLY
according to the Documentary Hypothesis, the latest of the four sources that were written around the 5th century bc
DOCUMENTARY HYPOTHESIS
The theory that the Pentateuch was produced by combining four strands of tradition (the Yahwist, the Elohist, the Deuteronomist, and the Priestly tradition) over a long period of time
ANTHROPOMORPHISM
Attributing human like characteristic to God
MYTH
A story that articulates a person's most profound sense of themselves and their world
OMNIPOTENCE
All powerful
BENEVOLENCE
Goodness
ANIMISM
Worship of the forces of nature
ABRAHAM
The first patriarch of the Israelite people with whom God formed an everlasting covenant; claimed as an ancestor by the Jews Christians and Muslims
PATRIARCH
(1) an early father of a people or (male) founder of a group, like Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob; (2) bishop of one of the “leading seats” of early Christianity: Rome, Alexandria, Antioch, Constantinople, and Jerusalem
ISHMAEL
Son of Abraham by his wife’s maid Hagar, who is sent away into the desert but rescued by God; claimed by the Muslim’s as the son of Abraham through whom they are descended
ISAAC
son of Abraham (by his wife Sarah) and patriarch of the Israelite people with whole the covenant with the Israelites are continued and through whom the promise to Abraham is fulfilled
COVENANT
A sacred pr formal agreement between two parties
JACOB
Son of Isaac and patriarch of the Israelite people renamed “Israel” by God. Jacob migrated from Canaan to Egypt with his twelve sons
ISRAEL
(1) the Israelite people, so named after their common ancestor Jacob, who is renamed Israel by God; (2) the country in which the Israelites dwelled; (3) the name of the northern kingdom of the Israelites
JOSEPH
favorite son of Jacob and founder of one of the twelve tribes of Israel, he was sold into slavery in Egypt but eventually ascended to become a high government official
MOSES
Greatest prophet of Israel who led the Israelites out of slavery in Egypt and into the promised land of Canaan, and who received form God on Mount Sinai the law on which the Israelite covenant with God is based
AARON
According to the Exodus story, Moses’ brother and assistant
PASSOVER
The Jewish holiday that celebrates the even when God rescued the Israelites from captivity in Egypt by killing the firstborn sons of the Egyptians but “passing over” the houses of the Israelites
EXODUS
literally, “road out” (1) the second book of the Hebrew Bible/Old testament; (2) the mass departure of the Israelites form slavery in Egypt through the saving action of God
SACRIFICE
Referring to the practice of offering gifts to God or the gods as a way to make request of the deity or to give thanks for favors received
JOSHUA
The successor to Moses, who led the Israelite into the promised land of Canaan and conquer red the peoples who dwelled there
FORMER PROPHETS
A group of books of the Old Testament consisting of the historical books of Joshua, Judges 1 and 2 Samuel, and 1 and 2 Kings, which include the stores of several early prophets like Samuel, Nathan, Elijah and Elisha also called the Deuteronomistic History
LATTER PROPHETS
A group of books of the Old Testament attributed to Israelite prophets of the 8th-5th centuries BCE and containing their prophecies and or accounts of their lives
DEUTERONOMISTIC HISTORY
Name given to a series of book of the Old Testament written by the Deuteronomistic Historian, books that emphasized the necessity of Israel adhering strictly to its covenant with God
DEUTERONOMISTIC HISTORIAN
of a series of books of the Old Testament/Hebrew Bible, whose agenda was to show how Israel’s fortunes were correlated to her obedience to the terms of the covenant with God
TEMPLE
(1) any building dedicated to the worship of performed; (2) the building in Jerusalem in which Israelites performed sacrifices and in which they believed God dwelled; first built by Solomon in the 10th Century BCE,; destroyed by the Babylonians in 587 BCE rebuilt later in the 6th Century BCE after the return form the exile refurbished by King Herod in the first century BCE and then destroyed by the Romans in 70 CE
ISRAEL
(1) the Israelite people, so named after their common ancestor, who renamed Israel by God; (2) the country in which the Israelites dwelled; (3) the name of the northern kingdom of the Israelites from 922 BCE until it was conquered by they Assyrians in 721 BCE
JUDAH
the name of the southern kingdom of the Israelites from 922 BCE until it was conquered by the Babylonians in 597 BCE
ARK OF THE COVENANT
1) a container for sacred objects of the Israelites, including the tablets of the Ten Commandments; (2) the “throne” on which Yahweh sat invisibly
JUDGE/ SHOFET
In Ancient Israel, a military and political that was chosen by God to rescue the Israelites from oppression brought about by their sin
PROPHET
a spokesperson for God, chosen by God to reveal his will to people
SAUL
The first king of Israel who was related by David when god found him unworthy to be King
DAVID
the greatest king of Israel, known for his military genius, musical abilities, love of Yahweh, and his occasional moral failures
SOLOMON
Successor to his father David as king of Israel, known for his wisdom, excessive wealth and the building of the temple in Jerusalem
JERUSALEM
The capital city of Israel, and later Judah; site of the temple
HOSEA
8th Century BCE prophet of Israel who used the imagery of material infidelity to characterize Israel’s relationship with Yahweh
AMOS
8th Century BCE prophet who condemned the social injustice of the northern kingdom of Israel and foresaw its destruction by the Assyrians
JEREMIAH
6th Century BCE who warned the people of Judah of their coming destruction by the Babylonians and counseled them to rely on faith and justice rather than on their possession of the temple and a Davidic king
EZEKIAL
6th Century BCE prophet who counseled the Judeans who were in exile in Babylon that, with renewed faithfulness to the covenant, God would allow them to return to their land
ISAIAH
8th Century BCE prophet. Among his many prophecies was a reassurance to the people of Judah that possessions of the temple and a Davidic king would protect them from harm
SECOND ISAIAH
A 6th Century prophet and the author of chapters 40-55 of the book of Isaiah, who foretold the Jews’ return from exile
BABYLONIAN EXILE
the period during the 6th century BCE when the Judeans were held captive in Babylon by the Babylonians
DIASPORA
"dispersion", referring to those Jews who were "dispersed" through historical circumstances outside the traditional Jewish homeland
SYNAGOGUE
buildings where Jews gathered to read and discuss their written scriptures
MESSIAH
anointed one
PRIESTS
people that Jews believed God had set aside a portion of the people of Israel to specialize in making proper sacrifices
HANNUKKAH
Festival of Lights
PENTECOST
(1) a Jewish harvest festical; (2) a Christian feast celebrated fifty days after Easter, comemorating the day in which the Holy Spirit came down upon Jesus' disciples when they were in hiding after his death and resurrection.
YOM KIPPUR
Day of Atonement
SECOND TEMPLE
the temple rebuilt by the Jews after the original's fall in 587 b.c.e.
HOLY OF HOLIES
the innermost part of the Temple where the Ark of the Covenant had been kept and God's presence dwelled
KOSHER
"keeping kosher" means to follow both the ethical guidelines and the special Jewish dietary restrictions
APOCALYPTIC
term describing a person, group, or text expressing the beliefs that the present world is evil and corrupt and that God will soon bring an end to it, destroying the evildoers and rescuing the righteous
RABBIS
(1) in ancient Judaism, a teacher (expecially of the Tora); (2) in modern Judaism, an ordained clergyman
SUFFERING SERVANT
one who takes the sins of the people onto himself and wins forgiveness for them through his suffering
HELLENIZATION
an attempt, initiated by Alexander the Great, to impose Greek culture on the peoples conquered by the Greeks
MACCABEES
the family who led the revolt by the Jews against the Greeks in the seond century B.C.E.
SADDUCEES
party of the upper classes: the priests, the landed nobility, and the major property owners
PHARISEES
religious leaders- scholars
ZEALOTS
a Jewish group of the first century C.E., who advocated the violent overthrow of the Romans and were major players in the disastrous revolt of 66-70 C.E.
ESSENES
Were a group of Jews who withdrew into the desert
SCRIBES
Performed functions that made use of their literacy, such as writing out contracts for people, advising rulers, keeping official records, and taking care of correspondence
PEOPLE OF THE LAND
in ancient Judaism, the poor and uneducated peasant farmers who comprised the majority of the Jewish population
PASSION NARRATIVES
A term used to describe the gospel stores of the arrest, trial, crucifixion, and death of Jesus
SYNOPTIC GOSPELS
Literally “seeing together”. The term is usually used with reference to the gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke which tell the same general story of the life and teaching of Jesus
SYNOPTIC PROBLEM
the question concerning the literary relationship between the gospels of Matthew, Mark and Luke, which are so similar that is almost universally believed that one or more of their authors used another gospel as a source
TWO-SOURCE HYPOTHESIS
A theory that explains the literary relationship among the synoptic gospels by suggesting that the writers of the gospels of Matthew and Luke used the gospel of Mark and a hypothetical source Q (a written document or documents mostly containing parables and saying of Jesus) as sources for their gospels
Q
Representing the German world Quelled, meaning “source” A (hypothetical) written document or documents, mostly containing parables and saying of Jesus, used as a source for the gospels of Matthew and Luke
MESSIANIC SECRET
A term used to describe the apparent commands to silence concerning the identity of Jesus contained in the gospel of Mark
CHRISTOLOGY
Meaning “words or teaching about the Christ”. A study concerned with who Jesus is as the Christ (Messiah) and what his role is in God’s relationship with humanity
BEATITUDES
Meaning “blessed” or “happy” the term refers to statements of blessing to be conferred on a person
LOGOS
A Greek word meaning “word” or “reason”. John’s gospel uses this term to describe Jesus as the revelation of God
INCARNATION
Meaning “enfleshemnt”; the Christian doctrine that asserts that God became human, specifically, that the divinity called “the Word” (or Logos or the Son) became human, or took on flesh, in the person of Jesus of Nazareth
KINGDOM OF GOD
The reign of God on earth, which is manifested in the coming of Jesus Christ, in the Sprit’s continued presence in the world and in the conviction that God will triumph over the foes of evil
BAPTISM
A Christian rite of initiation, which brings about the forgiveness of sins, makes the person a member of the Christian Community, and confers the Holy Sprit on the person. To baptize means “to plunge”. Immersion into the water symbolizes entry into Jesus’ death from which one is raised to new life
EUCHARIST
meaning “to give thanks”; the Christian ritual reenactment of Jesus’ Last Supper with his disciples. According to the Catholic doctrine, when the bread and wine is consecrated, it becomes the body and blood of Jesus Christ
PAUL
the most prolific of the first generation of Christian missionaries
JERUSALEM CONFERENCE
held in 48 or 49 c.e.; was called to discuss the question of whether Gentiles needed to become Jews in order to convert to Christianity
PSEUDONYMITY
the practice of writing a document with a false name attached; quite common in the ancient world
APOSTLE
"one who is sent out"
DISCIPLE
a learner or follower
JUSTIFICATION
(1) generally, making straight that which is crooked or ragged; (2) in theology being in a right relationship with God
JUSTIFICATION BY FAITH
the theory that one cannot achieve a right relationship with God through good works but can be justified by God as a free gift to one who accepts it through faith
JUSTIFICATION BY WORKS
the theory that one can achieve a right relationship with God by avoiding sin and atoning for any trangressions with good deeds
SACRIFICIAL ATONEMENT
najubg yo fir ibe;s subs wutg a sacrificial offering; specifically in Christianity, the idea that our sins are forgiven through the death of Jesus Christ on the cross
GRACE
free, unmerited assistance given to human beings by God for their salvation; it is participation in the life of God
PATRIARCHIAL SEES
the "head or leading seats" of early Christianity, that is the five cities which were the most important Christian centers: Rome, Jerusalem, Alexandria, Antioch, and Constantinople