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36 Cards in this Set

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Biomass
The amount of living material, or the amount of organic material contained in living organisms, both as live and dead material, as in the leaves (live) and stem wood (dead) of trees
Net productivity
The rate at which an ecosystem accumulates energy or biomass, excluding the energy it uses for the process of respiration. This typically corresponds to the rate of photosynthesis, minus respiration by the photosynthesizers.
Gross productivity
Production before respiration losses are subtracted
Primary Productivity
production by autotrophs
Secondary productivity
Production by heterotrophs
1st law of thermodynamics
energy can be transformed, i.e. changed from one form to another, but cannot be created or destroyed.
2nd law of thermodynamics
over time, differences in temperature, pressure, and chemical potential tend to equilibrate in an isolated physical system.
Primary succession
The initial establishment and development of an ecosystem
Secondary succession
Secondary succession is the series of community changes which take place on a previously colonized, but disturbed or damaged habitat. Examples include areas which have been cleared of existing vegetation (such as after tree-felling in a woodland) and destructive events such as fires.
Early successional species
Species that occur only or primarily during early stages of succession.
Late successional species
Species that occur only or primarily in, or are dominant in, late stages in succession.
Climax or mature community
In ecology, a climax community, or climatic climax community, is a biological community of plants and animals which, through the process of ecological succession — the development of vegetation in an area over time — has reached a steady state. This equilibrium occurs because the climax community is composed of species best adapted to average conditions in that area.
facilitation
during sucession, one species prepares the way for the next
interference
During succession, one species prevents the entrance of a later species into an ecosystem.
tolerance
the ability to withstand stess resulting from exposure to a pollutant or other harmful condition.
chronic patchiness
when succession never occurs
K-selected species
Populations of organisms that are roughly constant in size and have low reproductive rates. The offspring produced require extended postnatal care until they have sufficiently matured. Humans would be an example of a K-selected species.
r-selected species
Populations that experience rapid growth of the J-shape variety. The offspring produced are numerous, mature quite rapidly, and require very little postnatal care. Cockroaches would be an example of an r-selected species.
pioneer species
species which colonize previously uncolonized land, usually leading to ecological succession. They are the first organisms to start the chain of events leading to a livable biosphere or ecosystem. Since uncolonized land may have thin, poor quality soils with few nutrients, pioneer species have adaptations to help them survive.
Tag and recapture
a method commonly used in ecology to estimate population size. This method is most valuable when a researcher fails to detect all individuals present within a population of interest every time that researcher visits the study area. Other names for this method, or closely related methods, include capture-recapture, capture-mark-recapture, mark-recapture, sight-resight, mark-release-recapture, multiple systems estimation and band recovery.
Yellowstone National Park
a national park located primarily in the U.S. state of Wyoming, though it also extends into Montana and Idaho. Yellowstone was the first national park in the world, and is known for its wildlife and its many geothermal features
Bureau of Lands Management
an agency within the United States Department of the Interior which administers America's public lands, totaling approximately 253 million acres. It also manages 700 million acres (2,832,800 km2) of subsurface mineral estate underlying federal, state and private lands. Their mission is to sustain the health, diversity and productivity of the public lands for the use and enjoyment of present and future generations.
National Resource Lands
Farms and forests that are managed to meet several objectives, including the production of food and wood products and used for mineral and oil extraction or grazing
National Forest
A national park is a reserve of natural or semi-natural land, declared or owned by a government, set aside for animal safety and/or human recreation and enjoyment, and protected from most development.
USFS
An acronym that stands for the United States Forest Service which is an agency of the United States Department of Agriculture that administers the nation's 155 national forests and 20 national grasslands, which encompass 193 millions acres.
Ecological lands
a cartographical delineation of distinct ecological areas, identified by their geology, topography, soils, vegetation, climate conditions, living species, water resources, as well as anthropic factors. These factors are known to control or influence biotic composition and ecological processes. As a consequence, they provide a useful approximation of ecosystem potentials.
Working resource lands
farms and forests that are managed to meet several objectives, including the production of food and wood products: also used for mineral and oil extraction; grazing
Multiple-use lands
Multiple land use refers to the use of land for more than one purpose, for example, grazing of livestock, recreation and timber production. The term may also apply to the use of associated bodies of water for recreational purposes, fishing and water supply.
Moderately restricted-use lands
National Wildlife Refuge; a designation for certain protected areas of the United States managed by the USFWS
National wildlife refuges
a designation for certain protected areas of the United States managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. The National Wildlife Refuge system is a network of lands and waters
ANWR
The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR or Arctic Refuge) is a national wildlife refuge in northeastern Alaska, United States.
Dept. of Interior
The United States Department of the Interior (DOI) is the United States federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for the management and conservation of most federal land and natural resources, and the administration of programs relating to Native Americans, Alaska Natives, and Native Hawaiians, territorial affairs, and to insular areas of the United States.
USFWS
The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) is a federal government agency within the United States Department of the Interior dedicated to the management of fish, wildlife, and habitats.
Restricted-use lands
National Park System; the collection of physical properties owned or administered by the National Park System; NPS
National Park System
an area of countryside for public use designated by a national government as being of notable scenic, environmental, or historical importance
Wilderness areas
a natural environment on Earth that has not been significantly modified by human activity. It may also be defined as: "The most intact, undisturbed wild natural areas left on our planet—those last truly wild places that humans do not control and have not developed with roads, pipelines or other industrial infrastructure." Wilderness areas can be found in preserves, estates, farms, conservation preserves, ranches, National Forests, National Parks and even in urban areas along rivers, gulches or otherwise undeveloped areas.