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80 Cards in this Set

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Cycle Plays
performed by members of the community. Professional actors were strangers and suspected of thievery, illicit behavior, and so forth
Reniassance
rebirth of interest in learning and revived interest in the classical world of Greece and Rome. Playwrights, for example, began to write plays that imitated or adapted classical subjects.
Masterless Men
Because they were not recognized as a profession by the trade guilds, actors were considered masterless men. To have legal status and avoid being classified as vagrants, acting companies needed noble patronage
Apprentices
Each company also included 4-6 boys who served as apprentices. They played both children and all of the female roles in a production.
The Lord Chamberlain's Men
In exchange for patronage, the acting companies through the quality of their work, were expected to enhance the reputation of their patron as a supporter of the arts as well as present special performances for their patron from time to time (this company included Richard Burbage as its leading tragic actor and William Shakespeare as an actor and its principal playwright), and The King’s Men (again featuring Burbage and Shakespeare).
The Globe Theatre
(used by Shakespeare’s company after 1599) as a model:
A. It was round – exterior diameter approximately 99’
B. There were 3 levels of roofed galleries, each about 12’6” deep
C. The galleries enclosed the yard, approx. 74’ in diameter
D. The stage extended into the middle of the yard. The stage was 41’3” wide by 24’9” deep by 5’-6’ high
E. The audience viewed the stage from 3 sides
F. There was a roof over the stage (called either the heavens or the shadow) supported by 2 posts
G. At least 2 large doors permitted entrances and exits
1. These doors are considered the most essential part of the background
2. Changes in locale were indicated through the exit and entrance of characters while specific locations were indicated in the dialogue
Galleries
There were 3 levels in the globe theatre each about 12’6” deep
enclosed the yard, approx. 74’ in diameter
"The heavens"/"Shadow"
a roof over the stage of the globe theatre supported by 2 posts
Discovery space
A larger space may have existed between the
Shareholders
part owners of the company's assets. They played the leading roles and/or made business and artistic decisions for the company
Hired Men
were paid weekly wages. They served as actors, prompters, musicians, stagehands, etc.
Elizabeth I
took the throne in 1558 she outlawed public performance of religious and political plays.
Ben Jonson
known today for his comedies including Every Man In His Humour, Epicoene, Volpone, The Alchemist, and Bartholomew Fair, as well as for his court masques
william Shakespeare
is in the opinion of many, the greatest playwright who ever lived. only written about 2 plays per year but he had other sources of income (he was also a major shareholder in his company, and after 1599 part owner of the Globe Theatre). The reputation of the Elizabethan theatre rests on the work of him but he was only one of many significant dramatists of his time.
Richard Burbage
leading tragic actor in the company the lord chamberlain's men and featured in the kings men
Philip Henslowe
managed the company the lord admiral's men
The lord admiral's men
one of the most notable companies throughout the shift to professional theatre
christopher marlow
best known as the author of Tamburlaine, The Tragical History of Dr. Faustus, The Jew of Malta, and Edward II
the yard
The stage extended into the middle of this. The stage was 41’3” wide by 24’9” deep by 5’-6’ high
Vitruvius
The Italians based much of their scene design and theatre architecture on classical sources, especially De Architectura by the Roman architect...
perspective
Place, or the location of a scene was pictorially represented in its entirety as seen from a fixed eye-point.
Trade Guilds
promoted common good of those in each trade, governed by a council of masters. (union)
pageant wagon
similar to modern float, drawn through streets from one playing place to another in the order indicated in the script
wakefield cycle
English cycle, town in central england
platea
undifferentiated stage space
interlude
nonreligious serious or comic play so called because it was performed between the parts of a celebration.
mansions
used to represent locales, were scenic structures, sufficient to indicate plase but not meant to do so fully.
procenium/picture-frame stage
used to frame the stage so the audience could not see around or over the settings.
commedia dell'Arte
professional and open to the public. much of acting is improvised. script was a scenario
lazzi
pieces of comic business. fear, fight, sack...ex. 3 stuges
scenarios
summarization of situations, complications, and outcome
stock characters
commedia's best known features 3 catagories-lovers, masters, servants.
pantalone
elderly venetian merchant, of the father of one or more of the young lovers or a would-be lover himself.
capitano
one of the lovers of pantalone? but eventually he was transformed into a braggart and coward who boasted of his powers in love and war, only to be decredited in both.
dottore
pantalones friend or rival, was a lawyer or doctor who loved to show of his spurious learning in speeched filled with latin. was easily tricked.
zanni/servants
most companies included two, on clever one stupid. could be four. figured prominently in the action, their machinations kept plots moving as they sought to help or thwart their masters. most male.
lovers
most realistic roles, didnt wear masks and dressed in latest fashion. at least one pair most had two. mostly children having love affairs that did not agree with father. were aided by servants
neoclassism
only recognized two legitimate forms of drama, tragedy and comedy. tradegy--kings and nobles, comedy--middle/lower classes. plays written in five acts. action occur in 24 hours, one plot, poetic justice, "teach and Please"
pierre corneille
wrote "The Cid"
french
the le cid controversy
did not abid by neoclssic rules
poetic justice
punish the wicked and reward the good
Arlecchino
became the most popular of the zanni. A comic mixture of cunning and stupidity, he was usually at the center of each scenario's intrigues. The actor playing Arlecchino was expected to be acrobatic and a good dancer.
Columbine
is the most famous of the female zanni. Young, pretty, and alert, she was often Harlequin's love interest and/or partner in intrigue.
moliere
was involved in every aspect of the theatre. He was the head of company, its leading actor and its principal playwright. His company performed both comedies and tragedies but is best known for his comedies, most of which satirize obsessive behavior and repressive customs. Some of his most popular comedies are Tartuffe
romanticism
the belief that truth was to be found in the infinite variety of creation). became the dominant artistic movement of the first half of the 19th century.
melodrama
It contained elements of other popular forms: ballad opera, opera, scenic spectaculars, comedy, romance, drama, etc.
It served as an alternative form to the restrictions imposed in neoclassic drama. Since neoclassic rules only applied to comedies and tragedies in five acts, writers of melodramas were not bound by neoclassic rules
Because it used elements familiar to audiences, it served as the primary conduit for the introduction of romanticism into popular culture
henrik isben
wrote a doll's house
is usually considered the playwright most responsible for modernist, realistic drama.
realism
realistic plays, subject matter, acting, and production methods environment shapes character
Richard Wagner
composed operas He wished to create a theatrical experience that would draw the audience out of its everyday, mundane existence into an idealized, communal, near-religious experience. To realize his goal, had a new kind of theatre erected in Bayreuth, Germany (1876). It was the first modern theatre to eliminate the class distinctions of the box, pit, and gallery arrangement in favor of continental seating
Georg II, Duke of Saxe-Meiningen
usually considered the 1st director in the modern sense. The ruler of a small German state, he owned his own theatre company.He had complete control over every aspect of production.
independent theatre movement
independent theatres were able to unite the new drama with the new staging techniques. Independent theatres emerged in France, Germany and England
moscow art theatre
emerged from the independent theatre movement
konstantin stanislavsky
founded the moscow art theatre
Bertolt Brecht
Epic Theatre, associated with playwright. wanted to make audiences evaluate the socioeconomic implications of what they saw in the theatre and sought means to encourage the audience to watch actively and critically
the alienation effect
the use of conventions intended to distance the audience from stage events so they could view them critically. used by brecht
director
is concerned with the artistic aspects of production.
Interprets the script and forms a production concept or approach
Casts and rehearses the performers
Works with the designers
Integrates all of the elements into a finished production
literal approach
is based on the idea of trying to stay as close to the playwright’s intentions as possible
translation approach
approach is based on the idea of trying to capture the spirit of the script rather than a playwright’s literal intentions.
auteur approach
places less emphasis on the script. In this approach the director is considered the principal creative force.
auditions
Directors must cast actors in each production. (try-outs)
cold readings
because the actor has little or no time to prepare. unfamiliar material
open call
when anyone may audition
monologue
previously prepared audition material
blocking
placement and movement of the actors on a stage moment by moment, usually planned by the director.
Technical rehearsals
during which light and sound cues, as well as scene shifts are practiced
Dress rehearsals
during which costumes, make-up, and costumes changes are integrated
open run
so called because the production will continue to be performed as long as the producer believes it is financially viable
professional resident company
not-for-profit--generally regional theatres
producer
has the financial and managerial tasks of making productions available to the public. In most cases, the he/she has ultimate power in respect to all nonartistic decisions
artistic director
who’s primary concern is the artistic effectiveness of the company
community theatres
the organization itself is the producer and its volunteers carry out many of the duties.
educational theatre
the producer’s functions may be divided among several persons: The school (who usually owns the space)
The department chair or director of theatre
The business manager (if one exists)
The director of each play
Actors Equity Association.
professional stage actors usually must be members of this. Membership in this union does little to guarantee work but is generally viewed as confirmation that an actor has mastered the skills necessary for employment
given circumstances
Actors Equity Association.
emotion memory recall
Techniques to induce empathy for the character’s situation and emotional involvement have yielded various methods
run through rehearsal
Most directors include at least one uninterrupted practice of the entire play during this part of the rehearsal process
stage manager
The stage managerresponsible for
Running the show at each performance (calling light, sound, shift and special effect cues)
Compiling the promptbook
may organize and run auditions
may rehearse the performers
Jean Racine
probably mastered tragedy better than any other writer. Many believe his Phaedra perfected neoclassicism
the french academy
The Cid was attacked (despite its popularity) because it failed to obey neoclassical rules. Cardinal Richelieu asked a group known as the French Academy to examine the play and make a ruling. The Academy praised the play but said it was flawed because it violated the new rules
given circumstances
information indicated or suggested by the script or director