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53 Cards in this Set

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Council of Nicaea
- meeting prompted by Arius' challenge of the nature of Jesus
- resulted in Nicene Creed, which denounced Arius' challenge and stated Jesus' divinity
-Arians were excommunicated but their word had spread already
Melania the Younger
- daughter of rich Roman patrican who wanted to practice a life of chastity
-went from rich to more basic values
-mirrored Rome's transformation to Christianity.
Theodosius
-Emperor who massacred his people and was excommunicated by Ambrose until he publically repented (showed ecclesiastical power over the crown)
- forbid public worship of Roman cults. Christianity became the official religion of Rome
Paul of Tarsus
- orginial against Christianity, experienced a vision of Jesus and converted
- took on mission to spread Christianity. Travel to establish new Christan communities
-eliminated dietary restrictions
monasticism
- To withdraw from the distraction of the world in order to worship God
- some became hermits, other joined monstic communities
Pope Gregory the Great
- forwarded the supremacy of the pope
- took over daily administration of Rome
- Reorganized estates and managed them to generate money for the poor
- directed the defense
Clovis
- murdered his own relatives to consolidate his rule
- unified larage portions of Franish kingdom
- converted to Roman Christianity which gave him power and prestige
Council of Whitby
- meeting of the church where it was decided that Roman Christianity would set the calendar for England and Rome
Petrine Doctrine
- assurted the supremacy of the Pope which the empirers of the east did not agree with
- Pope Gelasius' 2 swords
Pepin the Short
- son of Charles who became mahor after his father's death
-asked the Pope to name him Kind of the Franks. He was.
- seized land of the invading Lombards & Byzantine and give it to Pope Zachary
Tacitus's 'Germania'
- praised German family values and devotion to marriage in order to criticize Roman society.
Iconoclasm
- Emperor ordered no more icon worship. Only God was to be worshipped
-The East wanted to challenge the church
-The West refused to follow it

Greek Orthodox vs Catholics grew further apart
Hijra
- Muhammad leaves Mecca because the people do not accept him

- Sept 24 b22 - 1st day of Islamic calendar

- converts more people to Islam in Medina then returns to Mecca
Muhammad
- Muhammad was a carvan manager who married his widowed boss

- visited by arch angel Gabriel at Mt. Hira where he recieved the final revolation from God
Qur'an
- written revelations of Muhammad

- The only accepted version of the revelations
Battle of Tours
- Islamic arms invaded Merovingian kindgom confident that they would be victorious

- Merovingian general, Charles Martel, led a force to Tours and defeated the Muslims
Shi'ites
- believed in equality of all believers no matter where they were from

- believed leaders should be decendents of leader Ali
- Ali was assasinated
Umayyads
- Sunni took over after Shi'ite leader Ali's assasination
- promote privalage of the Arabs
- move capital to Damascus
Abbasids
- Umayyads accused of falling away from Islam
- Tension grows between Sunni and Shi'ites
- Umayyads knocked out of power (mostly all of Umayyad family is killed)
- Capital moved to Baghdad
wergeld
- "man gold"
- Germanic law, relative price of individuals that established the fee for compensation to a family in case of injury/death of a person
ordeal
-Germanica law. The accused would burn a part of themselves (i.e hand) and if the burn healed they were innocent. God would protect them.
compugation
- Germanica law. 12 honorable men would testify to the character of the accused.
witan
- Ancient Angle-Saxon men who particpated in an assembly
- had to approve of a new King
- discussed governmental discision such as laws
Alfred the Great
- King of Wessex
- signed a treaty with Danish King, Guthrum, to divide England. Danish King agreed to convert to Christianity
- rules with law and learning
Danelaw
- The North half of England proportioned to the Danish Kingdom in the treaty with Alfred the Great.
- converted to Christianity
Charlemagne
- crowned Holy Roman Empireror by the Pope
- patron of learning and the arts
- law: capitualars (new law) and common law
- government: missi dominici (1 nobleman/1 bishop)
- land: aquire a lot of land and forced the inhabitants to convert to Christianity
missi dominici
- royal officials under Charlemagne who traveled around the country to enforce the king's law
- 1 nobleman and 1 bishisp
Tready of Verdun
- King Louis' sons divided their father's kingdom into 3 parts after his death destroying Charelmagne's united western Europe
Cluniac Reform
- monastaries did not like the control that the kings had over them.
- the Monks persuaded the duke of France to fund a monastery in Cluny that was exempt from local control
Magyars
- invaded Germany, France and Italy before settling to establish the kingdom of Hungary
Serf
- medeval pesants who were personally free, but bound to the land. They owed labor obligations as well as fees
Fief
- the portion of land given by lords to vassals to provide from their maintenance in return for their service
Vassal
a noble who binds himself to his lord in return for maintenance
Henry II
Polictal: Promoted lesser nobales to power
Financial: increaed exchequer
Judicial: expanded royal court law/justice of eyre
Church: specified crown over church
land: married Eleanore of Aquitane to gain land
justice of eyre
traveling justices empowered with royal authority by Henry II
Thomas Beckett
Constitution of Clarendon - Henry II's delcaration of the crown over church. Thomas Beckett refused to promote it because wouldn't want royals to run church
- slaughtered by Henry's men. Henry begs for forgiveness
Dictates of the Pope
Pope Gregory outlines power of the pope:
- can reenstate bishops
- princesses shall kiss his feet (power of church over crown)
- can dispose Emperors

* written in result of conflict w/ King Henry II
Albigensions
- believed in deulistic universe (evil and good)
- body is evil, spirit is good (attend to spirit/not body)
-condemed by church/inquisition/burned at the stake
Dominicans and Franciscans
Franciscans- (model) live a life of Christianity, exemplify ways of church

Dominicans - (teachers) exemplifes how to live the ways of the church
Waldensians
-St. Francis had a conversion experience. Franciscan became an order.
- had to live a life of poverty and couldn't preach their ideas
- preached anyway and faced inquisition from church
inquisition
- Church questioned people in order to find out if they not practicing Christians
Magna Carta
- Kings not above law
- Kings couldn't impinge on nobleman's rights
- King could impose no new taxes without approval
- King could not violatethe process of the law
Philip IV
-asks the church for a grant but Pope refuses. Prompts Boniface to write a document that church can't give $ to king without approval
Unam Sanctum
- document by Pope Boniface stating the Pope's powever of the crown
Philip II Augustus
- made great strides in centralizing his land
- took over English lands
- quadrupled income of monarchy

- appointed salaried official to collect taxes and represent his interests
Flagellants
- resorted to extreme measures to try to eliminate the plague
- beat themselves 3 times a day and splased blood on the churches as an offering to God
John Wycliffe
- critiqued the organized church
- claimed no scriptural basis of papal claims to Earthly powers
- wanted simple church led by a clergy that rejected wealth
Jan Hus
- preacher
- demand church reform
- wanted Bohemian freedom from German dominance
- defended his beliefs in from of Council of Constance but was burned at the stake for heresy
War of the Roses
- English monarch was weak from Paraliment taking over
- Lancast and York family began a civil war for the throne.
- each family had a different color rose
Pope Innocent III
- was able to assert leadership over the royals of Europe
- fought heretics
- called council to clairfy Christian beliefs. Identified 7 sacraments
Concilar movement
- councail of bishops were to restore order and reform abuses of the church
- wanted to convert the church to a constituational monarchy. Limiting papal power
- disposed 2 popes and name a new one but the 1st 2 refused to step down = 3 popes
- disposed of all 3 and elected a cardinal
John Ball and Wat Tyler
- preachers who led a revolt for social reform with religious hope, b/c were angry about the freezing of earning after the plague
Great Schism
- 2 popes elected: Pope Urban (Italian) and Pope Clement VII (French)
- the people were divded between them because of political motivations
- popes denounced each other and tired to increase split revenues
- church criticized for it's concern with money over spiritual. ppl wanted unification