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90 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
When was the last sunspot maximum?
What is a loop of solar material that can extend more than a million kilometers above the photosphere?
What is released in the direction of the Earth and appears as a halo around the Sun?
Sun Flares or CME's (coronal mass ejection)
How are Auroras made?
Solar flares add charged particles to solar wind and the Earth's magnetosphere traps it and the charged particles flow towards the poles.
How fast can solar wind flow and how does it affect the Earth?
1) 450 kilometers per second
2) they can affect communication satellites.
What star system is the sun a part of and how many stars are involved in this system?
The Alpha Centauri System and there are 3 stars involved.
The Sun is an average star. So what color it shine?
It shines yellow light.
What is the usual star system and how many stars are involved?
A Binary System with 2 stars involved.
What color has the shortest wavelengths?
What 4 stars are not a part of the main sequence?
1) White Dwarfs
2) Giants
3) Red Giants
4) Super Giants
What is a White Dwarf?
A hot but not bright star.
What is a Giant?
An extremely bright but not hot star.
What is a Red Giant?
A star that is red in color.
What is a Super Giant?
Large stars that are very bright!
Where do stars begin and what is it called?
It starts as large clouds of gas and dust called a nebula.
What is the central part of the Sun?
What is fusion?
4 hydrogen nuclei together to create 1 helium nucleus with the change in mass turning into energy.
What is the region that surrounds the Sun's core?
The Radiation Zone
What is the region that surrounds the radiation zone where gasses circulate in giant swirls?
The Convection Zone
What is the zone from which the sunlight we see is emitted?
The Photosphere
What is the thin layer just above the photosphere where charged particles move outward?
The Chromosphere
What is the main part and the largest, outermost layer of the Sun's atmosphere seen only during eclipses?
The Corona
Where do 90% of the stars fall under?
The Main Sequence
The H-R diagram shows what kind of relationship?
An Indirect Relationship
What is compared on the H-R diagram?
Temperature and Magnitude
What are the top 5 hottest parts of the Sun?
1) Core
2) Corona
3) Chromosphere
4) Photosphere
5) Sunspots
What are sunspots?
Spots on the photosphere that come from the magnetism pulling up cool material from the convection zone.
What is unusual about the Sun's rotation?
Since the Sun is gaseous, the Sun's poles revolve at a different rate than its equator.
What is the solar cycle?
When the rotation of the Sun starts getting really complex, the north and the south pole swap places.
How long can the sunspots last and how long does it take for them to rotate the Sun?
They can last for hours or for months and can take only 25 days to circle the Sun near it's equator.
Does the nebula have fusion?
How is a supernova made?
The outer portion of the red super giant star explodes producing a supernova though it might be many times brighter than the original star.
How is a neutron star formed?
When a supernova shrinks to form only neutrons in a dense core, it becomes a neutron star.
How is a black hole made?
When a supernova is 3 times bigger than the Sun or more, it will very likely collapse to a point where there is no volume and become a black hole.
Why is it called a black hole?
Because it sucks in everything in its path, even light. Nothing can escape from it.
What are the three major types of galaxies?
Spiral, Elliptical, and Irregular.
What is the center of the solar system?
The Sun
What is a galaxy?
A large group of stars, gas, and dust held together by gravity.
What type of galaxy is the Milky Way?
A Spiral Galaxy
Galaxies are grouped into what?
What cluster of galaxies does the Milky Way belong to?
The Local Group
The arms in a normal spiral galaxy start where?
Close to the center of the galaxy.
Andromeda is what kind of galaxy?
An Elliptical Galaxy
What does an Elliptical Galaxy look like?
It looks like a large, three-dimensional ellipse with many being football shaped and others being round.
What do Irregular Galaxies look like?
They are smaller than other types of galaxies and have many different shapes.
What Irregular Galaxies orbit the Milky Way?
Clouds of Magellan
The Milky Way is about how many light-years across?
100,000 light-years
What type if spiral galaxy might the Milky Way be?
A barred spiral
The Doppler Effect
Is it moving to you or away?
Towards you
The Doppler Effect
Is it moving to you or away?
Away from you
The Doppler Effect occurs with _________ and ____________.
Light and Sound.
What states that the universe probably began 12 billion to 15 billion years ago with an enormous explosion?
The Big Bang Theory
What is a spectroscope?
An instrument that breaks light into its component colors.
What is parallax?
The apparent shift in an object due to the motion of the observer.
Light travels how fast?
300,000 km/s
What is the distance in one light-year?
9.5 trillion kilometers
The nearer the object is to the observer, the greater the parallax. True or False
What is apparent magnitude?
The amount of light from a star as it appears to the observer on the earth.
What is absolute magnitude?
The measurement of the amount of light a star actually gives off.
What are circumpolar constellations?
Stars seen year round.
What are constellations?
A group of stars that form a pattern.
How many constellations are there?
88 constellations
How far away is the Sun(the nearest star)?
0.00002 light-years away
How long does it take for the Sun's light take to get to Earth?
8 min.
List the rays in order from shortest to longest.
Gamma, x-rays, ultra violet, infared, microwaves, and radio waves.
The light from the star tells us what 5 things?
1) Temperature
2) Age
3) Size
4) Composition
5) Brightness
A diffracting grating is made of what?
Plastic with 1,500 slits per square inch.
What are they?
1) incident ray
2) reflected ray
3) refracted ray
1) incoming ray
2) Outgoing from a mirror
3) Outgoing from a lens
What is the Law of Reflection?
The angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection.
What is the Principle of the Lens?
Light Rays are bent toward the fat part.
What is a folcal point?
Where rays meet.
What is a normal?
An incoming line that's perpendicular to the reflecting surface.
Who is credited inventing the telescope?
Who invented the lens telescope?
The Lippershey's father.
Where is the largest lens telescope and how big is it?
Yerkes Observatory in Wisconsin
1 meter
Where is the largest radio telescope and how big is it?
Arecibo, Puerto Rico
305 meters
What is wavelength?
The distance between the peak of one wave and the peak of the next wave.
Where is the largest multiple mirror reflecting telescope and how big and how many mirrors does it have? What is its name?
Mauna Kea, Hawaii
10 meters across
36 Hexagonal-shaped mirrors
Keck telescope
What are the 4 characteristics of electromagnetic waves?
-No mass
-Travel in a straight line
-Can travel through empty space
-move through empty space at 300,000 kilometers per second
What's the different about the multiple mirror telescope on Mt. Hopkins and the Keck telescope?
The way the mirrors are made.
What is the advantage of the Hubble over those on Earth?
It's view is not affected by Earth's atmosphere.
What is the size, place, and name of the largest single mirror telescope?
5 meters in diameter
Mount Palomar, California
The Hale Telescope
Where is the largest single lens telescope and how big is it?
Yerkes Observatory in Wisconsin
1 meter
Who discovered the radio telescope?
How big is the Hubble telescope and where is it located?
2.5 meters
On a satellite in space
What is the biggest a lens telescope can get?
1 meter
Who made the reflecting telescope?
The Sun is what percent of our solar systems mass?
Who came up the equation
E=MC squared?
What 2 stars can come from the Nebula?
A high mass star
A low mass star