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16 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Developmental Milestones:

How much weight does the average toddler gain during toddlerhood?
Average weight gain is 1.8 to 2.7 kg (4 to 6 pounds). The birth weight quadruples by 2 1/2 years
How many inches does the average toddler gain per year?
3 inches or 7.5 cm per year
How does the appearance of the toddler differ from the infant?
-the prominent body features is the rate of increase in head circumfrence slows somewhat by the end of infany, and head circumference is usually larger than chest circumfrence by 1-2 years. The toddler retains a squat pot-bellied appearance because of the less developed abdominal muscles and short legs. The legs retain slightly bowed or curved appearance during the second year.
What happens with the respirations of the toddler?
The respirations continue to be abdominal. Volume of the respiratory tract and growth of associated structures.
Respiratory rate slows
What happens to the heart rate of the toddler?
Heart rate slows, blood pressure increases
What happens with the urinary and anal sphincters at this time and why?
The urinary and anal spincters are controlled between ages 18 to 24 months. The toddler is able to retain urine for up to 2 hours. The complete myelination of the spinal cord, control of the anal and urethral spinchters is achieved.
When are all decidious teeth usually present?
All 20 decidious teeth are usually present by 2 1/2 years.
When can most toddlers walk alone well?
Most toddlers can walk alone well at 12 to 13 months.
When can most toddlers jump in place?
Most toddlers can run and jump in place at 2 and 2 1/2 years.
Psychosocial Development:

What is the developmental task according to Erikson?
Aquiring a sense of autonomy while overcoming a sense of doubt and shame. They begin realize that their behavior is their own and that is has a predictble,reliable effect on others.
How may the parents and the nurse help the toddler develop a sense of autonomy?
Dealing with negatism constructively. Maintain ritualism, the need to maintain sameness and reliability, provides a sense of comfort. Allow opportunities of self-mastery.
Describe the personal-social behavior of the toddler?
Toddlers are developing skills of independance, and these are evident in all areas of behavior. Begin to develop concern for the feelings of others and develop an understanding of how adult expectations for behavior apply to specific situations. As their understanding is fostered they are able to develop control.

What is characteristic of the toddler's language?
The most striking characteristic of language development during ealry childhood is the increasing level of comprehension.
Age 1: 4 words
Age 2: 300
At age 1 the child uses 1 word sentences; "up"

Summarize the play of the toddler?
Play magnifies the toddler's physical and psychological development. Interaction with people becomes increasingly important. The solitary play of infancy progresses to parallel play--the toddler plays alongside,not with, other children. Although sensorimotor play is still prominent,there is much less emphasis on the exclusive use of one sensory modality.
Cognitive development:

What is the tertiary circular reaction stage?
The teritiary circular reactions occur in the fifth stage of the sensorimotor phase (13-18 months). The child uses active experimentation to achieve previously unattainable goals. Newly acquired physical skills are increasingly important for the function they serve rather thanfor the acts themselves. The child incorporates the old learning of secndary circular reactions with new skills and applies the combined knowledge to new situations, with the emphasis on the reults of experimentation.
What is preoperational thought?
Implies that children cannot think in terms of operations--the ability to maninulate objects in relation to eachoher in a logical fashion.