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114 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Tissues
combination of diggerent types of cells and cell products that perform limited fuctions
Four Types of Tissue
1. Epithelial
2. Connective
3. Muscle
4. Neural
Composition of the Epithelial Tissue
Eptihelial and Glands
Epithelial
Layers of cells that cover internal and external surfaces
Glands
Structures that produce fluid secretions (derived from epithelia)
Characteristics of Epithelia
Cellularity, Polarity, Attachment, Avascularity, Regenerations
Ceullularity
Cells bound by cell junctions (interconnections)
Polarity
one surface is exposed (apical) and one is attached (basal)
Attachment
Bound by Basal Lamina
Avascularity
Lack of blood Vessels
Regeneration
Cells damaged are replaced
Functions of Epithelial Tissue
-Provides protection from abrasion, dehydrations, chemicals
-Controls Permeability- any substance entering or leaving must cross epithelium
-Provides sensation- have large nerve supply
-Produce specialized Secretions
Neuroepithelium
specialized to perform sensory functions
Glandular epithelium
produce secretions discharged on surface or to interstitial fluid as chemical messengers
Apical surface
Part exposed to internal or external environment
basolateral surface
includes base and parts where cell touches neighbor
Tight Junctions
lipid portions of 2 cell membranes
-impermeable
-for examble stomach lining
-intracellular connection
Gap Junctions
Cells held together by interlocking proteins (channels present)
-Allows for rapid communication
-messages pass from cell to cell to cell
Desmosomes
Cell adhesion molecules (CAM) and proteglycans link membranes
-strong and flexible
-like strong rubber cement
Attachment to Basal Lamina
By Lamina Lucida and Lamina densa
Lamina Lucida
closest to epithelium, barrier that restricts movement of large molecules from underlying tissue into epithelium
Lamina Densa
bundles of corse protein fibers produced by connective tissue
Classification of Epithelia
Cell shape, number of layers
Squamous
thin and flat cells
Cuboidal
look like boxes cells
Columnar
tall, slender rectangle cells
Simple
one layer
Stratified
multiple layers
Pseudostratisfied
looks like it's two layers but it's only one
-found in intstines
Simple Squamous epithelia
-Most delicate epithelium
-Occur where abosorption and diffusion take place or where slippery surfaces reduce friction (plerua, lining of hear and blood vessels)
Two types of Simple squamous epithelia
-Mesothelium-lines pleura, peritoneum
-Endotheilum- lines blood vessels and heart, stretchy and can stand some adjustment of shape
Stratified epithelia
occurs where mechanical stresses are sever
-Skin surface
-Lining of mouth
-Keratinized-apical layer contain protein filaments, resistant to water loss ex. bottom of foot
-Non-keratinized must be kept moist ex. mouth lining
Simple Cuboidal Epithelia
provide limited protection to areas where secretion and/or absorption occur
ex. parts of kidney
Stratified Cuboidal epithelia
Fairly rare, are located along ducts of sweat glands and large ducts of mammary glands
Transitional epithelial
tolerant of repeated cycles of stretching
-Found in urinary bladder, when full it resembles simple epithelium, when empty resembles multiple layers of cuboidal cells
Simple Columnar epithelia
found where secretion and absorption occur
-small intestine
-secretions protect against chmeical damage in large intestine and stomach
Pseudostratified columnar epithelia
contain cilia
occur in
-lining of nasal passages
-trachea
-bronchioles
-and parts of male reproductive tract
Stratified Columnar epithelia
Fairly rare, occur in parts of pharynx, epiglottis, anus and urethra
Glandular Epitheli
Endocrine glands and Exocrine Glands
Endocrine Glands
Secrete things inside of body
Exocrine Glands
Secrete things outside of the body
Connective Tissue
Connects epithelium to the rest of the body (reticular layer)
-Bone-provides structure
-Fat-energy stores
-Blood-transport material throughout body
Three Basic Components of CT
1. Specialized Cells
2. Extracellular Protein Fibers
3. Fluid (ground substance)
Matrix
Ground Fluid and extracellular fibers
Does the epithelial tissue or connective tissue have more matrix?
Connective Tissue
Functions of CT
-Structural framework of body
-Transportation of fluids and dissolved materials
-Protection of dlicate organs
-Supporting, surrounding, connecting other types of tissue
-storing energy reserves
-Defending body from microorganisms
What is the most delicate epithelial tissue
Simple Squamous
Classification of CT
Connetive Tissue Proper
Fluid Ct
Supporting CT
Connective Tissue Proper/ FibroCT
many cell types and extracellular proteins
-Loose CT (adipose-fat tissue)
-Dense CT (tendons)
Fluid CT
Cells suspeneded in watery matrix (blood, lymph)
Supporting CT
Low diversity cell population and dense fibers (bone, cartiledge)
Fibroblasts
most abundant cells, only cell always present in CT proper
Functions of Fibroblasts
secrete intracellular cement that locks epithelial cells together, secretes protein subunits that interact to form large extracellular fibers
Macrophages
Engulf damaged cells or pahogens
CT cells
Adipocytes
Contain large lipid droplet (fat cells)
CT cells
Mesenchymal cells
stem celll
CT cells
melanocytes
synthesize and store melanin
CT cells
Mast cells
common near blood vessels, contain histamine and heaprin
CT cells
lymphocytes
cells involved in imune system, travel to damaged areas may develop into plasma cells and produce antibodies
CT cells
Collagen fibers
long, straight and unbranched, most common in CT proper
-bundle of fibrous proteins wound together
-looks like they're braided
Reticular fibers
branched interwoven framework, tough and flexible
-resist forcesapplied in many directions
-stablixie positions of blood vessels in organs
-very stretchy and flexible
CT fiber
Elastic Fibers
contain elastin, branced and wavy
-once they stretch they retunrn back to original form
CT tissue
Loose Connective Tissue
packing material of the body
3 types
-Areolar
-Adipose
-Reticular
Areolar Tissue
least specialized, may contain fibers of all CT proper types
-resitant to distortion (elastic fibers)
-rich in capillaries
-between skin and muscle
Adipose tissue
account for most of volume
Functions: Padding, heat loss prevention, backing or filler (keeps organs from having too much space to wiggle around in)
White Fat
most of fat in body
Brown fat
infants and young children only,
-between shoulder blades and around neck
-mitochondria rich, highly vascularized lots of capillaries
Reticular Tissue
found in spleen and liver
-reticular fibers from stroma (a 3d matrix) supports parenchyma of organs
-also found in some bone marrow and lymph nodes
Dense Connective Tissue
fibers make up most volume
-collagen fibers are dominant
Two types of Dense CT
-Dense regular
-Dense irregular
Dense Regular CT
-parallel to each other, tightly packed, align with forces applied to tissue
Tendons, ligaments
examples of Dense Regular CT
Dense Irregular CT
interwoven meshwork with tno pattern
resists force in nearly every direction
Fluid CT
Fluid matrix ground cells do not from insoluble fiber
Blood
ex. of fluid Ct
the plasma is water matrix
Lymph
froms as interstitial fluid and enters lymphatic vessels
-99% lymphocytes
-1% macro and microphages
Cartilage
firm gel with chondroitin sulfates that combine with proteins to form protegoglycans
Chondrocytes
only cell type in cartilage
-avascular- wastes/nutrients transferred via diffusion
What separates cartilage from tissue?
perichondrion
Hyaline Cartilage
most common
-connections between ribs, nasal, repiratory passagesways
Elastic Cartilage
contain elastic fibers
-external flap of outer ear, epiglottis, small cartilage of larynx
Fibrocartilage
dominated by densely woven collagen fibers
-pads between vertebrae, pubic bones and a few joints and tendons
-resists compression, absorbs shock, prevents bone to bone damage
What does the bone matrix consist of?
2/3 calcium salts and 1/3 collagen fibers
Osteocytes
main bone cells
Canaliculi
allow exchange between blood vessels and osteocytes
Peristeum
is the outer layer, it sheaths the surface of the bone and assits in attachment to tendons and ligaments
Three types of Muscle Tissue
Skeletal
Cardiac
Smooth
Skeletal Muscle
-Responsible for gross movement
-Large multinucleated cells
-reproduce via satellite cells
-Striated voluntary muscle
Cardiac Muscle
-circulates blood
-1 to 5 nuclei
-Connected by intercalated discs
-Limited ability to repair damage
-STriated involuntary muscle
Smooth
-provides elasticity, contractility and support
-Cells can dived
-spindle shaped cell
-nonstriated involuntary muscle
cardiocytes
cardiac muscle cells
Where are smooth muscles located?
-walls of blood vessels
-hollow organs (urinary bladder)
-layers around repiratory, circulatory, digestive, reprodutive tracts
Neural Tissue
Specialixed for conduction of electrical impulses
-98% in brain and spinal chord
Neurons
Larges cells in body
-consist of cell body, nucleus, nucleolus, dendrites, axon
-One of the cells of neural tissue
Neurogila
Supporting cells in neural tissue
Fasciae- Connective Tissue layers (3 sections)
-Superfical fascia
-Deep Fascia
_Subserous Fascia
Superficial Fascia
subcutaneous layer or hypodermis
-Areolar tissues and fat that separates skin from tissure
-isulates
-lets skin and underlying structures move independently
Deep Fascia
Irregular CT
-resists froces from many directions
-Capsules surrounding organs bound to deep fascia
Subserous Fascia
Areolar Tissue
Between deep fascia and serous membrane
Endocrine Glands
releases secretions on the inside, such as hormones
Exocrine Glands
releases secretions on teh outside, such as tears and sweat
Merocrine Secretion
Released from secretory vesicles by exocytosis
-saliva, mucus, sweat
Apocrine Secretion
Loss of cytoplasm as well as secretory product
-cell repairs itself
-ex. milk production ois both merocrine and apocrine
the top of the cell comes off
Holocrine Secretion
Cell becomes packed with product and bursts, the cell is destroyed
-ex. oily hair coating
Serous Gland
Secrete water soulution containing enzymes (i.e. paraotoid salivary glands)
exocrine gland
Mucous gland
Secrete mucins that hydrate and form mucus (i.e. sublingual salivary glands)
exocrine gland
Mixed Exocrine Gland
More than one type of gland cell May produce 2 different secretions 1 serous, 1 mucus
(i.e. submandibular salivary glands)
exocrine gland
Unicelluar Glands
Scattered throughout epithelium
-goblet cells
-secrete mucins
Multicellular exocrine glands
-Secretory sheet
-Gland cells release secretions into inner compartment
-Secretions travel through ducts to surface
Characteristics of Muliticellular glands
-Structure of duct: simple or compound
-Shape of secretory portion of gland: tublular(cells form tubes), alveolar(cells form blind pockets), tubuloavleolar (form both tubes and pockets)
-relationship between ducts and glandular areas
What happens during inflammation of tissue?
-Damaged cells release prostaglandins, proteins, K ions
-Necrosis
-Mast cells release chmeicals (histamines, prostaglandins)
-->surrounding tissue releases, blood flow increases
Necrosis
lysosomal enzymes attack ijured cells
-Dead cells, necrotice tissue form pus
What happens with regeneration of tissue?
-Fibroblasts move into necrotic area and lay down collagen fibers (produce scar tissue)
-The scar tissue is "remodeled" and you get brand new tissue
What provides sturctural framework of body, protection of organs, and storage of energy?
Connective Tissue