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62 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Who came up with the 3 types of crying?
Wolff
Who said that the sound of the infant crying warms the mother's breast milk?
Vuorenkoshi
Who said fast responses to infants' crying makes the infant too dependent?
Hubbard, 1991
Who looked at African societies, and found girls cried more than boys there
konner, 1977
Who said smiling at 2 months is social?
Spitz and Wolff, 1946
Who found that infants prefer smiley faces to non-smiley faces?
Kuchuk, 1986
Who found from 4 weeks, infants begin to smile using eye contact
Wolff, 1963
Who studied Uganda and Japanese mothering styles?
Super and Harkness
Who found face preference from 2 weeks?
Fantz
Who used symmetrical non face to compare with faces?
Wilcox
Who used symmetrical faces in motion, to find face preference from infancy?
Goren, Sarty and Wu, 1975
Who found mother preference over a stranger preference in newborns?
Carpenter
Who found that attractive babies were given more attention than facially disfigured babies?
Bardes et al, 1989
Who found that babies prefer voices to other sounds?
Elsenberg, 1966
Who found that babies preferred the mothers voice to other voices?
Decasper and Fifer, 1980
Who found that infants discriminated a story that had been read to them in the womb?
Spence and Decasper, 1982
Who found that infants could distinguish between subtle sounds i.e. 'pa' and 'ba'?
Eimas et al
Who found that the mother and baby take turns while feeding?
Kaye, 1982
Who found mothers and babies of age 1 or 2 take turns with vocal sounds, like a conversation?
Schaffer et al, 1977
Who said emotions are both received and responded to?
Field et al, 1982
Who said we show characteristics we can't help when we are emotional?
Darwin
Who said infants can't perceive faces until 2 months because before then they can't see internal features?
Maurer and Barrera, 1981
Who said imitation uses innate skills?
Melzoff, 1985
Who said the mother looks where the infant does, but the infant only looks where the mother does by the end of the first year?
Collis, 1977
Who said development of routines i.e. peekaboo, rolling a ball to each other, teaches the child about the structure and demands of social interaction?
Bruner, 1983a
Who found three temperament characteristics?
Thomas and Chess, 1977, 1989
Who found high correlations in temperments of identical twins?
Goldsmith, 1989
Who found that inhibited and fearful children at 14 months had social anxiety at ages 2,3,4 and 8?
Kagan, 1989
Who found that temperament reports from different adults on the same child didn't match?
Thomas and Chess, 1989
Who criticised the 44 Juvenile Thieves, saying the evidence was flimsy?
Morgan
Who criticised the WHO report, saying could have been due to poor institutional care and ill health rather than maternal deprivation?
Rutter
Who found that children who had been in institutions and then adopted were fine by age 8, doing better than those returned to parents?
Tizard, 1977
Who said about the early learning theory, and that infants are positively reinforced by their mothers through feeding?
Dollard and Miller, 1950
Who said infants also become attached to those who mistreat them?
Schaffer
Who said about imprinting?
Lorentz, 1935
Who said about the homeostatic system?
Bowlby
Who came up with the strange situation?
Ainsworth, 1971
Who did the strange situation and found a 4th category?
Main and Solomon, 1986
Who found that infant's neurological status links with attachment type?
Waters et al, 1980
Who found that mothers who were more emotional during pregnancy had B attachments?
Fonagy, 1996
Who found B attachments continued over the 2nd year?
Waters et al, 1979
Who found B predicts good social relationships in playgroup?
Sroufe, 1983
Who found that 12 month attachments predicted closeness at 6 years?
Main, 1987
Who found 60% agreement with adult attachment?
Waters, 1995
Who found that D children have more severe problems at age 5?
Carlson, 1998
Who found there was an irregular chromosome in D babies?
Lakatos, 2000
Who found that the temperment and the inner working model, or attachment type, didnt match up?
Belsky et al, 1984
Who suggests tthat children have temperaments that provide challenges to the parents, and how they respond determines the attachment type?
Belsky and Rovine, 1987
Who said that when infants' mothers leave them, they firstly protest, then despair, then displacement occurs
Bowlby, 1973
Who studied children in friendly and intellectually stimulating London orphanages?
Tizard and Reesm 1974,
1975
Who studied children in Greek orphanages?
Dontas et al, 1985
Who said that the father just provided support for the mother?
Bowlby
who found that in the strange situation with mothers and fathers, 50% were attached to both parents, and 30% were attached to either parent
Main and Weston, 1981
Who said boys had more problems when the father was absence because the mother couldn't be a role model for them?
Hetherington, 1982
Who found that in the infant's second year the father uses more boistorous play?
Parke, 2004
Who found that the type of activity affected the type of play, not the sex of the parent or infant?
Lewis and Gregory, 1987
Who found that the father's language was more demanding?
Gleason, 1974
Who found that father's are affected more from being under observation than mothers?
Russel et al, 1982
Who found that IQ scores suffered if the father was absent, but only if the income was poor?
Crockett, Hawkins and Eggebeen, 1993
Who found that late teen development is affected by father-child play at age 3?
Grossman et al, 2002
Who found that the amount of father-child play predicts current and later success in peer interaction. Perhaps it teaches the child control
Parke et al, 2004
Who found that parent-teenager relationship determined adult psychological functioning?
Flouri and Buchanan, 2004