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91 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the functions of bones?
support and protection

body movement

blood cell formation

storage of inorganic salts
How do bones support and protect?
bones give shape to structures such as the head, rib cage and pelvic girdle

they support the body's weight
How do bones help the body move?
skeletal muscles attached to bones by tendons, use the bones as levers to move body parts
How do bones help blood cell formation?
blood cells are formed within the bone marrow
What is hematopoiesis?
the process by which blood cells are formed
What is red marrow?
where red blood cells, white blood cells and platelets are formed
What is another name for red blood cells?
What is another name for white blood cells?
What is another name for platelets?
What does yellow marrow do?
stores fat
What inorganic salts do bones store?



Why is calcium the most important inorganic salt? when calcium is low what do the bones do? when calcium is high what do the bones do?
it's important because it helps to make bones strong

when it's low osteoclast is stimulated to break down bones

when it's high osteoblast is stimulated to build bones by storing calcium
How are bones classified?
according to their size and shape
What are some examples of long bones?

What is an example of short bones?
What are some examples of flat bones?
the skull

What are the two major parts of the long bone?

where is the epiphysis (spongy bone)located and what is covering it?
located at the end of the bone

the outer surface is covered with a layer of hyaline cartilage called articular cartilage
What is another name for the diaphysis (compact bone)? What does it consist of?
the shaft

it's covered with a tough layer of fibrous tissue called the periosteum. it also consists of a hollow chamber called the medullary cavity which is filled with marrow
What are 2 microscopic structures?

blood vessels
What are osteocytes?
mature bone cells
Where are blood vessels and what do they do?
located throughout the bone, nourishes blood cells
When is bone built?
when osteocytes arrange themselves in circles called osteons. the middle of each osteon is called the osteonic canal. this is where blood vessels and nerves are located.
How do bones form?
by replacing existing connective tissues in 2 ways (intramembraneous and endochondral bones)
What are intramembraneous bones?
bones that are formed from fibrous membrane

this includes the flat bones of the skull
What are the steps of intramembraneous bone formation?
step 1- the fibrous tissue cells differenciate into osteoblast. the osteoblast deposits a bony matrix around themselves

step 2- as the cells accumulate, spongy bone tissue is formed in all directions

step 3- a layer of tissue condenses on the outside of the fibrous membrane, which forms the periosteum

step 4- osteoblast on the inside of the periosteum forms a layer of compact bone over the layers of spongy bone
What is ossification?
when bone is formed from pre-existing tissues
What does the vascular tissue in spongy bone turn into?
red marrow
What are endochondral bones?
bones that are formed from hyaline cartilage

forms most bones of the skeleton
What are the steps of the endochondral bone formation?
step 1- the osteoblast forms the periosteum on the outside of the hyaline cartilage

step 2- osteoblasts and blood vessels from the periosteum invades the hyaline cartilage and form spongy bone in the center. this is called the primary ossification center

step 3- osteoclast breaks down the newly formed spongy bone to form the medullary cavity

step 4- the osteoblasts from the periosteum deposit a layer of bone between the medullary cavity and the periosteum

step 5- a secondary ossification center appears in the epiphysis, spongy bone is formed in all directions
What is a bond of cartilage called and where is it located?
epiphyseal disk or growth plate

remains between the diaphysis and the epiphysis
What happens when the bone gets longer?
the cells of the epiphyseal disk grow, divide and thickens
What are the 2 major portions of the skeleton?
axial skeleton

appendicular skeleton
What makes up the axial skeleton?
the skull

hyoid bone

vertebral column

thoracic cage
What are the 2 sets of bones in the skull?
cranial bones

facial bones
How many bones are in the skull? how many cranial bones? how many facial bones?
22 bones

8 cranial

14 facial
What is the skull's function?
protects the brain and sensory organs
What is the function of the cranium?
it encloses and protects the brain and provides attachments for muscles
What are the 8 bones of the cranium?
1 frontal bone
2 parietal bones
1 occipital bone
2 temporal bones
1 sphenoid bone
1 ethmoid bone
What is the frontal bone?
the bone that forms the forehead of the skull
What are the parietal bones?
the bones that form each side of the skull
What is the occipital bone?
the bone that forms the back of the skull
What are the temporal bones?
the bones on each side of the skull by the ear

they serve as attachments for muscles
What is the sphenoid bone?
the large bone located at the bottom of the cranium
What is the ethmoid bone?
it's the small bone located in front of the sphenoid bone aka crista galli because it's shaped like a cock's comb
What are sutures?
immovable joints

the areas where bones come together or meet
What are the names of the sutures?



Where is the coronal suture?
where the parietal bones meet the frontal bone
Where is the saggital suture?
where the two parietal bones meet
Where is the lambdoidal suture?
where the parietal bones meet the occipital bone
Where is the squamous suture?
where the parietal bones and temporal bones meet
What is the function of the facial bones?
these bones form the shape of the face and provide attachments for muscles
What is the keystone bone of the face?
What is the keystone bone of the cranium?
What is the maxillae?
bones that form the upper jaw
What is the mandible?
a u-shaped bone that forms the lower jaw

largest, strongest facial bone
What is the coronoid process?
serves as attachment for the temporalis
What are the palatine bones?
L-shaped bones that help to form the hard palate
What are the zygomatic bones?
cheek bones that help to form the lateral walls and floors of the orbits
What are the lacrimal bones?
finger nail shaped bones that articulate with the frontal bone superiorly, posteriorly with the ethmoid and anteriorly with the maxillae
What are the nasal bones?
rectangular shaped bones that fuse medially to form the bridge of the nose
What is the vomer bone?
a slender plow shaped bone located in the middle of the nasal cavity

it joins the ethmoid bone to form the nasal septum
What is the inferior nasal conchae?
a thin scroll shaped bone that is attached to the lateral walls of the nasal cavity
Where is the vertebral column? what is it's function? what separates the vertebrae?
extends from the skull to the pelvis

protects the spinal cord

separated by intervertebral disks
What does a typical vertebra consist of?
a body and bony vertebral arch, which surrounds the spinal cord

notches on the upper and lower surfaces provide intervertebral foramina through which spinal nerves pass
In a cervical vertebrae what do transverse processes bear? what is the first vertebra called and what does it do? what is the second vertebra called? what do dens do?
transverse formina

the atlas supports and balances the head

the axis

provides a pivot for the atlas when the head is turned from side to side
Compare the size of the thoracic vertebrae and the cervical vertebrae. What do the facets on the sides articulate with?
thoracic is larger than the cervical

the ribs
What are lumbar vertebrae and what are their function?
large and strong

they support more body weight that any other vertebrae
What is the sacrum? What forms the sacral canal?
a triangular structure formed of 5 fused vertebrae

vertebral formina
What is the coccyx composed of and where is it located? What is it's purpose?
4 fused vertebrae

forms the lowest part of the vertebral column

it acts as a shock absorber when a person sits
What does the thoracic cage include and what is it's function?
the ribs, thoracic vertebrae, sternum and costal cartilages

it supports the pectoral girdle and upper limbs, protects the viscera, and functions in breathing
How many pairs of ribs are there? What are true ribs joined to? What are false ribs joined to? What does a typical rib include?
12 pairs attached to the 12 thoracic vertebrae

costal cartilages join the sternum directly

costal cartilages join the sternum indirectly or not at all

a shaft, a head, and tubercles that articulate with the vertebrae
What does the sternum consist of and what does it articulate with?
a manubrium, body, and xiphoid process

the clavicles
What is another name for the pectoral girdle?
the shoulder
What does the pectoral girdle consist of? What does it form? What does it provide?
2 clavicles and 2 scapulae

it forms an incomplete ring that supports the upper limbs

it provides attachment for muscles that move the arms, chest and back
What is another name for clavicles and what are they?
collar bones

slender, rodlike bones that extend horizontally across the upper thorax
What is another name for scapulae and what are they? What does it articulate with?
shoulder blades

broad triangular bones located on either side of the upper back

the humerus bone
What do the upper limbs include? What does it provide?
includes the bones of the arm
(humerus), forearm (radius and ulna) and hands

provides attachments for muscles, also function as levers
What is the humerus and what does it articulate with?
the largest and longest bone of the upper limbs

it articulates with the glenoid cavity
What is the radius and ulna?
the two bones that form the forearm
the ulna is longer and more slender
What is the hand composed of?
8 carpal bones (wrist)

5 metacarpals (palm)

14 phalanges (fingers)
What does the pelvic girdle and what is it's function?
it consists of 2 coxal bones that articulate with each other anteriorly and with the sacrum posteriorly

it supports the trunk of the body, provides attachments for the lower limbs, and protects the urinary bladder, the distal end of the large intestine, and they internal reproductive organs
What forms the bowl shaped pelvis? What does each coxal bone consist of?
the sacrum, coccyx, and pelvic girdle

an illium, ischium, and pubis, which are fused in the region of the acetabulum
What is the illium?
it is the largest portion of the coxal bone

it joins the sacrum at the sacroiliac joint
What is the ischium?
the lowest portion of the coxal bone

it supports body weight when sitting
What is the pubis?
the anterior portion of the coxal bone

it's bones are fused anteriorly at the symphysis pubis
What do the bones of the lower limbs provide?
frameworks of the thigh (femur), leg (tibia and fibula), and foot
What is the femur?
it extends from the hip to the knee

the patella articulates with the femur's anterior surface
What is the tibia?
it is located on the medial side of the leg

it articulates with the talus of the ankle
What is the fibula?
it is located on the lateral side of the tibia

it articulates with the ankle but does not bear body weight
What is the foot?
it consists of an ankle, an instep, and 5 toes

it includes 7 tarsal bones that form the tarsus, 5 metatarsal bones, and 14 phalanges

the tarsal bones or tarsus can move freely