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56 Cards in this Set

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In the early 1500's, what was science based on?
The ideas of Aristotle
What was the Aristotelean view?
A motionless earth was fixed at the center of the universe, around it ten spheres revolved, and there was heaven and earth.
Why did Christians like Aristotles interpretation?
Because it gave a specified place for heaven and earth.
What was the Copernican hypothesis?
It was his heliocentric model of the world.
What were the consequences of Copernicus' hypothesis?
-It put the stars at rest, taking away the crystal spheres.
-It suggested a universe of staggering size.
-There was no heavenly realm.
Who was Brahe?
He developed the world's first observatory, as well as came up with a new arrangement of the planets, in which the sun and moon circled the earth, while the rest of the planets circled the sun.
What were Kepler's three laws of planetary motion?
1. The orbits are eliptical
2. The orbits do not follow a constant speed.
3. The orbits' speed vary according to their distance from the sun.
What method did Galileo develop?
The experimental method.
What law did Galileo develop?
The law of inertia.
Upon making the telescope, what did Galileo discover?
The moons of Jupiter.
What was the Newtonian synthesis?
The law of universal gravitation.
What were the causes of the scientific revolution?
1. The establishment of universities
2.The Renaissance, which stimulated scientific progress.
3.The navigational problems of long sea voyages.
Who developed the theory of empiricism?
Bacon
What did Descartes discover?
Analytic geometry.
What is Cartesian dualism?
Everything can be deduced to either matter or mind.
In the early 1500's, what was science based on?
The ideas of Aristotle
What was the Aristotelean view?
A motionless earth was fixed at the center of the universe, around it ten spheres revolved, and there was heaven and earth.
Why did Christians like Aristotles interpretation?
Because it gave a specified place for heaven and earth.
What was the Copernican hypothesis?
It was his heliocentric model of the world.
What were the consequences of Copernicus' hypothesis?
-It put the stars at rest, taking away the crystal spheres.
-It suggested a universe of staggering size.
-There was no heavenly realm.
Who was Brahe?
He developed the world's first observatory, as well as came up with a new arrangement of the planets, in which the sun and moon circled the earth, while the rest of the planets circled the sun.
What were Kepler's three laws of planetary motion?
1. The orbits are eliptical
2. The orbits do not follow a constant speed.
3. The orbits' speed vary according to their distance from the sun.
What method did Galileo develop?
The experimental method.
What law did Galileo develop?
The law of inertia.
Upon making the telescope, what did Galileo discover?
The moons of Jupiter.
What was the Newtonian synthesis?
The law of universal gravitation.
What were the causes of the scientific revolution?
1. The establishment of universities
2.The Renaissance, which stimulated scientific progress.
3.The navigational problems of long sea voyages.
Who developed the theory of empiricism?
Bacon
What did Descartes discover?
Analytic geometry.
What is Cartesian dualism?
Everything can be deduced to either matter or mind.
What were some consequences of the Scientific Revolution?
1. Science became competive
2. The Modern Scientific Method
Who was Bernard de Fontenelle?
He tried to make science appear witty and interesting, to those without a background in the subject.
What were some uncertanties brought to light by skeptics?
1. Absolute truth
2. Religious unity
3. Discovery of new cultures
4. John Locke's essay
What did John Locke believe about the human mind? Who was this in contrast to?
He believed all ideas are derived from experience, the mind is like a blank tablet at birth (tabularasa). Descartes thought all people were born with basic ideas.
Why did the enlightenment reach it's peak in France? (3)
1. French was the language of the educated classes.
2. In France, radicals did not face the same punishment
3. They wanted to reach the general public.
What did John le Rond d'Alembert believe?
The great majority of common people are doomed.
How did Montesquieu suggest that despotism could be avoided?
Through a separation of powers.
How did Voltaire view relgion?
He thought God made the world, but then stepped to the side.
Who wrote the Encyclopedia?
Didderot.
Who aruged that humans were machines operated by outside forces?
d'Holbach.
What did Hume argue?
That the human mind is nothing but a bundle of impressions.
What political theory did Rousseau contribute?
The general will.
Who greatly influenced the romantic movement?
Rousseau.
Who invaded the German province of Silesia?
Frederick the Great.
Which ruler tried to Westernize Russia?
Catherine the Great.
Who outlined the rules of fair warfare?
Grotiius
Who questioned the necesity of war?
Comenius
Who developed the idea of using an ethical thought as the guide to conduct?
Spinoza
What were the three ideas of the Englightenment?
1. Individualism
2. Relativism
3. Rationalism
What was the Glorious revolution?
James II was thrown out from the throne, and Mary and William ascended.
What is Hobbes' perception on human nature?
Humans are inherently bad.
What did Hume believe, pertaining to universal truth?
There is none.
Who invented calculus?
Leibniz
Who epitomized the Strum and Srang movement?
Goethe.
What made the Enlightenment difficult to popularize in Germany?
1. Small city states
2. The language was Latin
3. Was no popular discontent
4. Was no large distinction between classes
Who argued against Mercantilism?
Quesnay