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15 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
HEREDITY
The passing on of characteristics from parents to offspring
GENETICS
Branch of biology that studies heredity.
TRAITS
Characteristics that are inherited.
GAMETE
A sex cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes.
POLLINATION
The transfer of male pollen grains to the pistil of a flower.
FERTILIZATION
Uniting of male and female gametes.
HYBRID
Offspring from parents that have different forms of a trait (e.g., tallness or shortness).
MONOHYBRID CROSSES
Two parents differ by a single trait.
MENDEL MONOHYBRID CROSSES - 3 STEPS
P1 : short pea plant crossed with tall pea plant

P2 : all tall pea plants

P3 : 3 tall, 1 short (no intermediate forms)
MENDEL'S 2 "FACTORS"
Mendel concluded that each organism has two "factors" that control each of its traits. We now know these "factors" are genes.
ALLELES
Genes that exist in alternate forms. For example, Mendel's pea plants could have 2 alleles of a gene that determines height. Both could be tall, both could be short, or one could be each.
ALLELE'S LOCATION
An organism's 2 alleles are located on different copies of a chromosome -- one inherited from the male parent and one inherited from the female parent.
DOMINANT
In F1 generation, the trait that was observed -- it won out over the other alternative and, when paired with a recessive trait, the dominant one is the one that will be expressed.
RECESSIVE
In the F1 generation, the trait that disappears but reappears in the F2 generation. Must have two recessive alleles for the recessive trait to be expressed.
MENDEL'S 2 LAWS
1. The law of segregation
2. The law of independent assortment.