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13 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
republic
system of government in which officials are chosen by people
patrician
member of the landholding upper class in ancient Rome
tribune
official in ancient Rome, who was elected by the plebians to protect their interests
tribune
official in ancient Rome, who was elected by the plebians to protect their interests
consul
in Ancient Rome, official from the patrician class who supervised government and commanded the armies
plebeian
member of the lower class in ancient Rome, including, farmers, merchants, artisans, and traders
dictator
ruler who has complete control over a government; in ancient Rome, a leader appointed to rule for six months in times of emergency
legion
basic unit of the ancient Rome army, made up of about 5,000 soldiers
veto
power to block a government action
How did geography shape the early development of Rome?
The location of Rome helped Romans as they expanded, first in Italy, and then into lands around the Mediterranean. The Italian peninsula is centrally located in the Mediterranean and the city of Rome is in the center of Italy. Because of its geography, Italy was much easier to unify. The Apennine Mountains run like a backbone are less rugged. Italy has broad, fertile plains. These plains supported a growing population.
What were the major characteristics of government in the Roman Republic
The most powerful governing body was the senate. Rome had a system of checks on the power of government. In the event of war, the senate might choose a dictator. Plebeians began to gain power. The Laws of the Twelve Tables made it possible for the first time for plebeians to appeal a judgment handed down by a patrician judge. They gained the right to elect their own officials and could veto laws that they felt were harmful.
What were the major characteristics of society in the Roman republic?
The family was the basic unit of Roman society. The father had absolute power in the family. He enforced strict discipline and demanded total respect for his authority. His wife was his subject and couldn't manage any of her own affairs. The ideal Roman woman was loving, dutiful, dignified, and strong. Over the centuries, Roman women gained greater freedom and influence. Girls and boys learned to read and write. Even lowerclass Romans were taught to write. Wealthy Romans were hiring tutors to supervise the education of their children. The Roman god Jupiter ruled over the sky and the other gods. They also prayed to Neptune, god of the sea, whose powers were the same as those of the Greek god Poseidon. On the battlefield, they turned to Mars, the god of war. The Roman calendar was filled with feasts and other celebrations to honor the gods.
Why was Rome's expansion in Italy successful?
Rome's success was due to skillful diplomacy and to its loyal, well-trained army. Roman commanders mixed rewards with harsh punishment. Soldiers who showed courage won praise and gifts. If a unit fled from battle, 1 out of 10 men from the disgraced unit was put to death. Rome treated its defeated enemies with justice. They had to acknowledge Roman leadership, pay taxes, and supply soldiers for the Roman army. In return, they were allowed to keep their own customs, money, and local government. As a result of such generous policies, most conquered lands remained loyal to Rome. To protect its conquests, Rome posted soldiers throughout the lands and built a network of all-weather military roads to link distant territories to Rome. As trade and travel increased, Latin was incorporated into their languages and they adopted many Roman customs and beliefs.