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46 Cards in this Set

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Red Scare
1919-1920 (after Bolshevik Revolution); 1919 alien radicals deported in nationwide against left-wingers thought to be anti-American; good for conservative business people who used it to crush unions (said unions were communist)
A. Mitchell Palmer
Attorney General, "the Fighting Quaker," prosecuted lots of suspected communists
Nicola Sacco and Bartolomeo Vanzetti
convicted in 1921 of murder; unfair trial; executed 6 years later; shows prejudice against immigrants
Ku Klux Klan
unlike the older, anti-black KKK, it was more nativist (anti-immigrant); extremist, ultra-conservative group to counter diversity in U.S.; "the Knights of the Invisible Empire"; famous for blazing crosses; collapsed in 1920's
fear of immigrants (zenophobia)
Emergency Quota Act (1921) limited # of immigrants from each country in Europe; 3% of U.S. population from that country in 1910; Immigration Act (1924) dropped it to 2%; Europeans complained it was unfair and discriminatory; purpose: freeze U.S. population diversity; especially harsh against Japanese; Canadians and Lat-Americans exempt, becuase they could be deported easily (use as needed); shift in U.S. policy: closing doors to immigration; 1931--more foreigners left than arrived
18th Ammendment (1919): legal abolition of alcohol; strongest supporters churches and women; popular in South and West; opposition in Eastern cities; forced alcohol industry into hiding: dangerous alcohol; absenteeism decreased and bank savings increased
American Gangsterism
increased during Prohibition; Chicago was prime example; 1925 "Scarface" Al Capone started 6 years of gang wars; served most of an 11 year sentence in jail, got siphilus and came out "a wreck"; gangs moved into other fields after prohibition: drugs, prostitution, gambling; by 1930, annual revenue for gang organizations was $12-18 billion (more than U.S. gov't)
John Dewey
Columbia Univ professor 1904-30; learning by doing; one of leading philosophers in U.S.; believed labor was as important as education/academia; changed educational theory
Scopes-Monkey Trial
in Dayton (Eastern Tennessee, 1925); bio teacher, John T. Scopes indicted for teaching evolution; William Jennings Bryan prosecutor; defense Clarence Darrow; Byran died of stroke shortly after trial; Scopes found guilty, but didn't have to pay fine due to technicality; the Fundamentalists looked ridiculous, thus it was only a minor victory for them, perhaps even a setback in public opinion
tried to make Americans unhappy with what they had so they would buy all the products mass-produced in efficient factories; Bruce Barton, a founder of the industry and author of "The Man that Nobody Knows," that posited Jesus Christ as greatest ad-man ever
automotive industry
assembly-line methods, mass-production; Detroit was motor capital of U.S.; created lots of jobs; motivated related industries: highway construction, rubber production, petroleum/gasoline production, gasoline stands; also see card for Henry Ford
Charles Lindberg
famous aviator: 1927, flew plane, the Spirit of St. Louis, over the Atlantic from NY to Paris, 33 hours 39 minutes, got $25,000; popularized flying; baby son kidnapped, killed in 1932; prompted Congress to pass Lindberg Law making interstate kidnapping punishable by death
Bull Market
Florida land boom: selling underwater land to unsuspecting buyers; stock exchange: speculation ran wild, risky trading; "Be a bull in America"--slogans encouraging risky trading and investing; stocks bought on margin; rags-to-riches tales on Wall Street; people didn't realize how risky this was; Washington didn't curb it; national debt climbed from just over $1 billion in 1914 to over $23 billion in 1921;
Henry Ford
Henry Ford develops "Fordism" system of efficient factory production; sold cheap, standardized cars; manufactured Model T, the first car sold to consumers; by 1914, Ford had sold 500,000; 1930: 20,000,000--more than enough cars to encircle the globe; talk of him running for president
social changes wrought by the automobile
standard of living increases; perishable food production increases, as does farm to consumer deliveries (as transporting it takes less time); more freedom for women, young lovers; populations dropped in less popular states (easier to move); encouraged school and church consolidation; also resulted in many deaths due to undeveloped traffic laws and unsafe cars
at first only reached local audiences; advertisers could sell products via commercials; served as means of bringing U.S. closer together; stimulated sports; politicians could reach broader constituency
Mellon and the Bureau of the Budget
1921, Bureau of the Budget created to prevent pres./congress spending inappropriately; controversial Sec. of Treasury, Mellon, and millioniare friends (the Mellonites) said that high taxes discouraged business; Mellon lowered taxes (1921-26); foes said he should have taken more out of the debt using tax money rather than lowering taxes;
Adkins v. Children's Hospital
(1923) Key Supreme Court case that ruled women deserve special protection in the workplace. Reversed previous ruling (Muller V. Oregon). Invalidated minimim wage law for women since women were now more equal to men.
Washington Conference
(1921 - 1922). All major naval powers invited (US, Britain, Japan France, Italy)except Bolshvik Russia. Double agenda: (1) Five Power Naval Treaty: Set ratio of 5:5:3 for US, Britain & Japan battleships and aircraft carriers (2) Keep status quo with situation in Far East. Not very successful
Kellogg-Briand Pact
(1928) "Pact of Paris." Pact with France that tried to outlaw war. Named after Sec. of State Frank B. Kellogg (later won Nobel Peace Prize). Ratified by 62 nations.Reflected naivitee of US in 1920s. Not effective.
Tariffs go higher
Reversed progressive era trend. Business people tried to keep the market to themselves by creating higher tariffs around US. ; Harding and Coolidge enacted more tarrif increases than reductions; (1922) --> Forney-McCumber Tariff Law. Increased duties on farm produce and created rates to make cost of US and forgeign production equal.
Teapot Dome Scandal
(1921) Government malpractice scandal. Secretary of the Interior, Albert B. Fall, accepted a bribe to transfer oil reserves in Teapot Dome, Wyoming to the Interior Dept; There was no competitive bidding by other companies. Fall sentenced to one year in jail but bribe offerers were acquitted.
President Calvin Coolidge
30th President, elected 1924, after Harding died. Coolidge ("Silent Cal","Cautious Cal") was unmemorable President. GOOD: replaced corruction with honesty. Everyday kind of guy. BAD: Had mediocre powers of leadership. Not a great politician (boring speeches, didn't control business) : sponsored Kellogg_briand Pact.
reparations for WWI
debtors complained that the money went to help already-strong economies in Allied country; U.S. used tariffs to prevent Germans selling goods, thus Germany couldn't earn the money to pay back loans; French and Brits demanded $32billion; Germany on brink of chaos
Dawes Plan
1924: Charles Dawes' rescheduling Germany's reparation payments and allowed more private loans; lightened Germany's load a bit
Herbert Hoover
elected 1928 against Al Smith; platform of prosperity and prohibition; Stanford grad; followed Washington in staying out of international alliances; had never held office before; self-made millionaire; endorsed labor unions; supported federal control of radion stations, like the BBC; started gov't assistance program for needy citizens (like welfare), and FDR also used and developed it; congress against him
Al Smith
4 time governor of NY; problems: still drank (during prohibition), too urban, Roman Catholic; colorful personality; liberal; nickname "The Happy Warrior"; theme song, "The Sidewalks of New York"
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
1930: intended to protect farmers; ammendments were added as it went thru House; ended up being highest protective tariff in nation's history; angered foreigners: like "economic warfare"; plunged U.S. and other nation deeper into depression
Stock market crash
October 1929; partially triggered by Brits raising interest rates to bring back capital lured abroad; people panic, start selling stock: "Black Tuesday," October 29th; suicides increase; by end of 1929, investors had lost $40billion; U.S. suffered most; worst depression in world history; people lost farms and homes; causes: over-production (production exceeded consumption), too much credit (buying on installment plans) overstimulated production; machines took place of workers: increased unemployment; Vienna bank failed-- financial collapse in Europe too, worsening U.S. depression; natural disasters: drought in Mississippi; 1930 Depression a "national calamity"; people lost everything through no fault of their own
Hoover's philosophy
industry, thrift and self-reliance made U.S. great; feared that gov't giving out welfare would weaken Americans' work ethic; changed his view from "log cabin individualism" to accept that the well-being of citizens in crisis (depression) is the gov't's responsibility; thought that if wealthy were stable, they would provide more jobs for working class, thus welfare unnecessary; didn't stop Depression, but kept it from getting worse
Hooover Dam
Colorado River dam that created huge man-made lake for irrigation, flood control, and electric power; helped agriculture and gave jobs to workers
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
1932: Congress approves this bank to lend money to gov't; $500million capital invested to start; assisted insurance companies, banks, agricultural organizations, railroads, and state and local gov'ts; created too late; "the millionaire's dole"; a bit like the New Deal
the Bonus Army
the Bonus Expeditionary Force (BEF; WWI vets) trying to get gov't to pay the bonus voted on in congress in 1924; set up unsanitary public camps in front of at Capitol to protest, built shacks on vacant lots (bad for public health); eventually Hoover evicted them; ordered Gen. McArthur to evict them, which he did, but very violently; battle between them called "battle of Anacostia Flats"; injuries and deaths resulted (people disliked Hoover even more)
Huey Long
senator from Louisiana; slogans for a "share our wealth" program; wanted "every man a king," under that every family received $5000 at the expense of the rich; assassinated in LA
National Recovery Administration: designed to assist administry, labor, and thh unemployed; placed max.numbers one could work, and minimum wage; gave workers right to organize and elect their own the representatives; forbade anti-union contracts; symbol of NRA a blue eagle with slogan: "we do our part"; people joked that NRA was "National RunAround" or "Nuts Running America"; 1935 Supreme Court killed the NRA; affected Shechter opinion (from Germany); said that Congress can't give legislative powers to the Executive Branch; they declared that congressional control of interstate commerce cannot apply to a local fowl business; Roosevelt angered
U.S. v Schecter
the case that killed the NRA; Supreme Court decision (1935) ruled unconstitutional the 1933 National Industrial Recovery Act; Schecter Poultry Co. had been convicted of violating an NIRA (National Industrial Recovery Act) code regulating interstate commerce; court ruled that NIRA delegated too much power to U.S. Pres.; killed important part of FDR's New Deal; government couldn't dictate prices in terms of industry (hours, wages, etc...)
Agricultural Adjustment Administration; established prices for agricultural goods that were = to those of 1909-14; paid growers to reduce crop acreage; had wobbly start; AAA killed by Supreme Court in 1936; 2nd Agricultural Adjustment Act in 1938 (more comprehensive), gave farmers fairer price & more substantial share of nat. income
Indian New Deal Securities Reform
aka "Indian Reorginization Act Act of 1934" (Indian New Deal); encouraged tribes to establish local self-govt. & to preserve native traditions; started by Commissioner of Indian Affairs John Collier after being w/ Pueblo Indians; helped stop loss of Indian lands & revived tribes' interes in own identity & culture; not all Indians liked it, 77 tribes refused to organize under it
Securities Reform
"Truth in Securities Act" (Fed. Sec. Act) required promoters to give buyer info. about the quality of thier stocks & bonds; "Let the seller beware"; 1934- Sec. & Exchange Commission (SEC) created to watch over stock market & ensure it operated more as trading mart, not casino; Public Utility Holding Co. (1935) made it impossible to control too large a portion of businesses
Tennessee Valley Authority (1933); passed by 100 Days Congress; founded by Sen. George W. Norris of Nebraska; TVA= most revolutionary of New Deal plans; wanted to discover how much production & distribution of electricity cost; called "socialistic" b/k people argued that low cost of TVA due to dishonest bookkeeping & absence of taxes ("creeping socialism in concrete"); brought full employment, cheap electric power, low cost housing, much nitrates, restoration of soil, reforestation, better navigation, and flood control to Tennessee
Social Security Act
1935; most complicated law ever to pass Congress- provided for Fed-state unemployment insurance, specified categories of retirees who would receive regular payments from Washington ($10-$85 per month), provided for blind, physically handicapped, delinquent children & others; strongly opposed by Rep. party; inspired by ex. of more highly industrialized nations of Europe
Wagner Act
aka Nat. Labor Relations Act (1935); created Nat. Labor Relations Board & restated right of laborers to self-organize under rep's of their choosing; Wagner Act- milestone in US labor movement
Committe for Industrial Organization; started by John L Lewis; org. w/in AF of L; CIO moved into car industry; 1936- held 1st sit down strike at Gen. Motors in Flint, Michigan; Gen. Motors eventually recognized them as the only bargaining agency for its workers; 1937- Memorial Day Massacre at Republic Steel Co. (police fired upon workers); 1938- CIO broke w/ AF of L, creating Congress of Industrial Organization (new CIO) under John L Lewis; CIO greatly contributed to FDR's campaign chest
Court Packing
1937- Roosevelt asked Congress to permit him to add new justice to Sup. Court for all members >70 who would not retire b/k he claimed court was behind in its work (turned out false); Roosevelts plan was undermined when Congress voted full pay for justices >70 who retired
Roosevelt Recession
1937- econ. worsened again (depression w/in depression); called "Roosevelt recession" which held some truth b/k govt. policies had caused plummet (Social Security started affecting pay & administration spent less to maintain "balanced budget"
What eventually ended Great Depression?
WWII actually solved unemployment in US (not New Deal) b/k of necessity for new jobs; increase in national debt. due to WWII, not ND (raised from $40 bil. in 1939 to $258 bil. in 1945)