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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what is austria's claim to fame white grape
gruner veltliner
lake balaton
Southern hungary
Varietal wines
what grape variety is used In tokaji?
what are the 3 styles of tokaji
tokaji szamorodni (as it comes, botrytis and healthy grapes fermented in cask with flor like yeast).
tokaji aszu (grapes vinified dry seperatly, with healthy grapes, grapes pounded into paste and added to sweeten wine)
tokaji essencia (free run juice from paste, only in best years from best vineyards).
explain puttonyos
20-25 of hod used to measure aszu paste
wine sold in 3, 5, or 6 puttonyos
what is a gonc
136 liter cask used to measure base wine in the production of tokaji aszu
Commanderia – Cypress
Made from raisinated red and white grapes
Fortified after fermentation
Hungarian wine laws 3 levels
are based on the French AC system. Varietal labeling is common.
• Azstali Bor: Table wine
• Minosegi Bor: AC equivalent
• Kulonleges Minosegi Bor: ‘Special Quality Wine’ – made from botrytis-affected grapes
East of Austria, south of Slovakia, northeast of Slovenia, northwest of Romania.
Tremendous potential for fine wine production, which is not yet realized in most areas. Huge investment is needed. Currently, winery conditions are primitive, with very old equipment. Many vineyards need replanting with correct clones and better rootstocks. The transportation of grapes is also an issue.

Always had a distinctive wine and food culture. The collapse of Communism has had a dramatic effect on the wine industry. In the past, there were lots of small growers with land leased from the state. Vinification was in state wineries or heavily subsidized co-ops. Post-communism, there is now substantial foreign interest and investment, especially in the Tokaji region. There now exists a definitive split between international and traditional styles of wines.
Climate: Continental climate, with short cold winters and hot summers. The autumns are long with sufficient moisture for reliable Botrytis development. Lake Balaton is Europe’s largest lake and provides an appropriate climate for grape-growing.
Soil Type(s): Slate, basalt, clay, loess, sand, volcanic rock.
Practices and Special Issues: Relatively flat, land-locked country. The Danube divides the country from east to west. There are two principal rivers, the Danube and the Tisza. The Great Plain, a large grape-growing area, is in the middle of the country.
Varietal(s): White varieties account for 58% of the total.
• Many native white varieties: Ezerjó, Furmint, Hárslevelü, Juhfark, Nagyburundi.
• Some common synonyms are Szürkebarát (Pinot Gris), Rajnai Rizling (Riesling), Olaszrizling (Welschriesling).
• Native red varieties: Kadarka (Gamza in Bulgaria), Kékfrankos (Blaufränkisch, or Lemberger), Kékoporto (Portugieser).
• International varieties: Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot.
• Previous, undemanding domestic market led to old-style, oxidized wines with little fruit. Better winery hygiene now, with a focus on modern, reductive wine-making with more emphasis on primary fruit character.
• Influence of Flying Winemakers.
• Tokaji has a special vinification method that is discussed below.
• The Pannonfan Wine Makers Club (Pannon Bvormies Ceb) is a group of 10 independent winemakers in Hungary. Their goal is to produce great wine and they have very strict regulations. Two winemakers were chosen from each of the 5 major growing regions.
Three most important grape varieties in Tokaji hungery
• Furmint: Represents 55% of plantings and is one of the most important varieties. Thin-skinned and susceptible to rot.
• Hárslevelü: Represents 45% of total plantings. Easier to grow than Furmint.
• Muskotalyos: Yellow Muscat Blanc. Plantings are in decline.
• Zéta: Formerly known as Oremus. Has been an authorized variety since 1994.
Tokaji Hegyalja
The most famous region. Located in the northeastern part of the country. Generally cool climate is tempered by warm winds from the Great Plains during the growing season. Cool nights contribute to the generally high acid nature of the wines. Annual rainfall is 550 mm. The Carpathian Mountains shelter the region from the north, east, and west. Most of the best vineyards are on southeast and southwest facing slopes. Soils are varied: loess, stony clay, and volcanic. In the best years, the late morning mists from the Bodrog River and XXXXX River roll in and disperse in the late afternoon, which is ideal for the onset of Botrytis.

The finest villages of Tokaji are Tarcal, Mad, Tallya, and Tolcsva. add in others. The vineyards of Tokaji are rated, and divided into 1st and 2nd growths. Nyulaszo, Szt Tames and Betsek are 1st growths. Birsalmas is a 2nd growth.
Tokaji Ordinarium means?
Dry to medium dry wines that may be made from a single grape varietal and the grapes will not be botrytized
Tokaji Szamorodni: means?
Szamorodni means “as it comes.” Describes the process of vinifying all grapes together, botrytis-affected or not. Aged in cask which allows the development of a flor-type yeast. The wines may be dry (szaraz) or sweet (edes), but will be made from less than 50% of aszú grapes.
Tokaji Aszú means?
Aszú means botrytis-affected. Healthy and aszú grapes are separated in the vineyard. Dry wine is made from the healthy grapes. Aszú grapes are stored until December, and then pressed without damaging the pips. The paste extracted is then added to either must or dry wine. Most producers add it to the wine. The paste adds a supply of fermentable sugar, and the wine undergoes a slight secondary fermentation. Fermentation typically stops naturally around 11-14%. The more paste added, the sweeter the wine.
The higher the number of puttonyos added to a Gonc, the sweeter the wine. Sold as 3, 4, 5, or 6 puttonyos. Now the wines must meet minimum residual sugar levels for the various levels: 3 (60g/l), 4 (90g/l), 5 (120g/l), 6 (150g/l). Oxidative aging and flor development are key to aszú’s character. Must be aged in a Gonc for a minimum of 3 years, and usually 4-8 years. Very humid cellars, and the casks are only topped up once a year. Tokaji is bottled in 500 ml bottles
• Puttony: means?
20-25 kg hod traditionally used to measure aszú paste. Puttonyos is the plural
• Gonc means?
136-liter cask traditionally used to measure base wine
Tokaji Aszú Eszencia: means?
Aszú Eszencia, which is the equivalent of a “7 puttonyos” (though this term is never used) Tokaji Aszú. Must be aged in oak for a minimum of 5 years. Min 180 g/l RS.
Tokaji Eszencia means?
The rarest kind of Tokaji, also known as Tokaji Nectar, is the free-run juice of exclusively the aszú-berries, racked off without pressing and giving a nectar of unequalled, almost honey-like concentration. During the storage of aszú berries, a small amount of must collects at the bottom of the container. It is essentially pressed out by the weight of the fruit above. This rich, very sweet liquid forms the base for Tokaji Eszencia. Residual sugar is min 450 g/l, but sometimes as high as 800-900 g/l. Thick, delicious, and decadent. Used primarily for blending. Yeasts struggle when the sugar content of the must is so high; the high sugar level causes the must to absorb the water contained in the yeast cells, destroying the yeast. Only at the extreme edges of the must will the yeast work, where the must absorbs water from the humid cellar air (allowing the yeasts to function). Min 5 years’ cask aging
Fordítás means?
Meaning “turning over” in Hungarian. Made by pouring must on aszú dough which has already been made to make aszú wine
Máslás means?
Derived from the word “copy” in Hungarian, this wine is made by pouring must on the lees of aszú.
Késői Szüretelésű means?
Literally, “late harvest”. Recently reductive sweet wines have begun to appear in Tokaj. These are ready for release 12-18 months after harvest. They typically contain 50-180 g/l RS and a ratio of botrytized berries comparable to aszú wines.
Tokaji Cuvée means?
Some innovative producers have used this term to market Tokaji wines not fitting the above categories but in many ways comparable to Aszú and often of high quality and price.
Lake Balaton Regions
Europe’s largest lake
North of the lake is planted with traditional varieties
Badacsony has a reputation for top quality white wines
Interesting local rare white grape Keknyelu “full-bodied fiery palate, fine acids and an intensive aromatic bouquet but often produces a disappointing quality”
Wines from South of the lake are characterized by inexpensive wines from international varieties
Balatonboglar region: Chapel Hill, Kim Milne, Clive Hartnell and Dr. Richard Smart
Northern Transdanubia
Sopron: Good quality red wines from Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet Franc and Kekfrankos
Somlo: Tokaji-like wines
Mor: Ezerjo, Gewurztramner and Chardonnay
Etyek: Known for Chardonnay and Sauvignon Blanc
Southern Transdanubia
Villany: Known for inexpensive varietal wines
Pecs: ditto…………
There are vineyards in all parts of Bulgaria
For administrative reasons they are grouped into 5 viticultural regions
Eastern or Black Sea Region
Danube Plain Region
Sub Balkan Region
Southern Region or Thracian Valley
South Western Region or Struma Valley
Black Sea Region
Represents 30% of national production
Climate is moderated by proximity to the Black Sea
Controliran and DGO wines from:
Novi Pazar
Controliran Chardonnay from Novi Pazar has a reputation
Danube Plain Region
Generally continental climate and slightly cooler than the southern part of the country
Known for top quality Cabernet Sauvignon from Suhindol
Also decent wines from the Gamza grape
…..aka Kadarka
Sub-Balkan Region
Not an important area for export
Most wine is distilled for vermouth production
Struma Valley Region
Region is named after the Struma river
Centered around the town of Melnik which is also the name of a local grape variety
Lots of white made from Rkatziteli
Good quality Cabernet Sauvignon and Melnik
Southern or Thracian Valley Region
Lots of bulk wine production but some very good quality reds from Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot and Mavrud
Assenovgrad Merlot has a good reputation
Traditional Appellation:
Most Retsina is produced in Attica in Central Greece
The main grape is Savatiano with a little Rhoditis blended in
Maximum of 1000 g/l of Alep pine resin added to the must during fermantation
greek white grapes 4
Savatiano, Rhoditis, Moscophilero and Assyrtiko
greek red grapes 4
Xynomavro, Aghiorghitiko and Mandilaria Mavrodaphne
Czech Republic
better known for beer …. Increasingly better wine, mostly from Moravia … climate suited to whites
smaller but more wine production … TS says “a dismal quality” … mostly M-T and Laski rizling and GV
The Western Balkans
Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Macedonia, Serbia and Montenegro, Slovenia
Political events since early 1990’s has delayed growth and improvement
Potential lies in Serbia and Slovenia

Please read pages 426 & 427 of your text
anciant tradition and great terroir
grape brandy is most important product
Borat, Sacha Baron Cohen, Ali G, Horse’s Urine etc., etc
Crivoca for sparkling wines
winter is an obstacle to grape growing … some promise on the east-facing slopes of the Caucasus Mountains
has potential … good whites and sweets …. Read about the Massandra collection
Pages 428 and 429 of Tommy S
Most of the grapes are used for fresh fruit consumption
Only 3% is used for wine
Mostly table grapes
Galilee is the premier region
Israel’s oldest and largest company, Carmel, accounts for over 55% of total production … Interesting Cabernet Sauvignon
hummmmmmm … serious refrigeration issues …. Heineken now owns largest producer
Chateau Musar !!!

Made in the Bekaa Valley from Cabernet Sauvignon, Cinsault and Syrah
Tastes like a cross between Bordeaux and Southern Rhone

Chateau Kefraya also makes wines of note
Chateau Belle-Vue, Chateau Ksara, Clos St. Thomas
North Africa
Algeria, Morocca, Tunisia
Appellation systems based on structure left behind by colonial French
Islam now hinders wine development
No direct sales from wineries makes wine tourism impossible
Under French north Africa was very important source of juice
Grenache, Cinsault, Carignan most important
Following independence, all countries’ wine quality dramatically plummeted