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127 Cards in this Set

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Visual examination of the external surface of the body as well as of its movements and posture
inspection
The process of examining by application of the hands or fingers to the external surface of the body to detect evidence of disease or abnormalities in the various organs
palpation
Process of listening for sounds within the body, usually of the thoracic or abdominal viscera, to detect some abnormal condition, or to detect fetal herat sounds
auscultation
Use of fingertips to tap the body lightly but sharply to determine position, size, and consistency of an underlying structure and the presence of fluid or pus in a cavity
percussion
Lymphatic tissue forming a prominence on the wall of the recess of the nasopharnyx
adenoids
Air cells of the lungs; known as the pulmonary parenchyma
alveoli
The upper portion of the lung; rising about 2.5 to 5 cm above the collarbone
apex of lung
The lowest part of the lung, resting on the diaphragm
base of lung
The two main branches leading from the trachea to the lungs, providing the passageway for air movement
bronchi
One of the smaller subdivisions of the bronchial tubes
bronchiole
Any of the minute blood vessels
cappilaries
The musculomembranous wall separating the abdomen from the thoracic cavity
diaphragm
A thin, leaf-shaped structure located immediately posterior to the root of the tongue; covers the entrance of the larynx when the individual swallows
epiglottis
The sound-producing apparatus of the larynx consisting of the two vocal folds and the intervening space
glottis
Pain in the larynx
laryngalgia
Lower portion of the pharynx that extends from the vestibule of the larynx to the lowermost cartilage of the larynx
laryngopharnyx
The enlarged upper end of the trachea below the root of the tongue: the voice box
larynx
The mass of organs and tissues separating the lungs. It contains the heart, aorta, trachea, esophagus, and bronchi
mediastinum
External nostrils
Nares
Part of the pharnyx located above the soft palate (postnasal space)
nasopharynx
Central portion of the pharynx lying between the soft palate and upper portion of the epiglottis
oropharynx
Lymphatic tissue located in the depression of the mucous membrane of fauces (the constricted opening leading from the mouth and the oral pharynx) and the pharynx
palatine tonsils
Hollow areas or cavities within the skull that communicate with the nasal cavity
paranasal sinuses
Portion of the pleura that is closest to the ribs
parietal pleura
Passageway for air from nasal cavity to larynx and food from mouth to esophagus; the throat
pharynx
The nerve that is knows as the motor nerve to the diaphragm
phrenic nerve
The double-folded membrane that lines the thoracic cavity
pleura
The space that separated the visceral and parietal pleurae, which contains a small amount of fluid that acts as a lubricant to the pleural surfaces during respiration
pleural space
The functional units of the lungs, which have very thin walls that allow for the exchange of gases between the lungs and the blood
pulmonary parenchyma
A wall dividing two cavities
septum
The chest; the part of the body between the base of the neck and the diaphragm
thorax
A cylinder-shaped tube lined with rings of cartilage that is 4.5 inches long, from the larynx to the bronchial tubes; the windpipe
trachea
Portion of the pleura that is closest to the internal organs
vixceral pleura
The temporary cessation of breathing
apnea
Abnormally slow breathing
bradypnea
A forceful & sometimes violent expiratory effort preceded by a preliminary inspiration.
cough
A cough that is not effective in bringing up sputum
nonproductive or unproductive cough
A cough that is effective in bringing up sputum
productive cough
Sputum resembling mucus
mucoid sputum
sputum containing mucus and pus
mucopurulent sputum
Sputum containing pus
purulent sputum
Sputum resembling serum; containing a thin, watery fluid
serous sputum
Slightly bluish, grayish, or dark purple discoloration of the skin due to the presence of abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin in the blood
cyanosis
Difficulty in speaking: hoarseness
dysphonia
Air hunger resulting in labored or difficlut breathing, sometimes accompanied by pain
dyspnea
Hemorrhage from the nose; nosebleed
epistaxis
The act of spitting out saliva or coughing up materials from the air passageways leading to the lungs
expectoration
The expectoration of blood arising from the oral cavity, larynx, trachea, bronchi, or lungs.
hemoptysis
Increased amount of carbon dioxide in the blood
hypercapnia
Insufficient oxygenation of the blood
hypoxemia
Deficiency of oxygen
hypoxia
Very deep, gasping type of rspiration associated with severe diabetic acidosis
Kussmaul respiration
Respiratory condition in which there is discomfort in breathing in any but erect, sitting, or standing position.
orthopnea
Friction rub caused by inflammation of the pleural space
pleural rub
An abnormal sound heard on auscultation of the chest, produced by passage of air through bronchi that contain secretion or exudate or that are constricted by spasm or a thickening of their walls
rales
Thin,watery discharge from the nose
rhinorrhea
Rales or rattlings in the throat, especially when it resembles snoring
rhonchi
To expel air forcibly through the nose and mouth by spasmodic contraction of muscles of expiration due to irritation of nasal mucosa
sneeze
Harsh sounds during respiration; high pitched and resembling the blowing of wind, due to obstruction of air passages
stridor
Abnormal rapidity of breathing
tachypnea
A whistling sound or sighing sound resulting from narrowing of the lumen of a respiratory passageway
wheeze
Inflammation of the respiratory mucous membranes known as the common cold
coryza
A choldhood disease characterized by a barking cough, suffocative and difficlut breathing, stridor, and laryngeal spams
croup
Serious infectious disease affecting the nose, pharynx, or larynx, usually resulting in sore throat, dysphonia, and fever. Caused by bacteria Corynebacterium diphtheriae
diphtheria
Inflammation of the larynx, usually resulting in dysphonia, cough, and difficulty breathing
larngitis
An acute upper respiratory infectious disease caused by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis; "whooping cough"
pertussis
Inflammation of the pharynx, usually resulting in sore throat
pharyngitis
Infammation of the mucous membranes of the nose, usually resulting in obstruction of the nasal passages, rhinorrhea, sneezing, and facial pressure or pain
rhinitis
Inflammation of a sinus, especially a paranasal sinus
sinusitis
Inflammation of the palatine tonsils; located in the area of the oropharynx
tonsillitis
Paroxysmal dyspnea accompanied by wheezing caused by a spasm of the bronchial tubes or by swelling of their mucous membrane
asthma
Chronic dilatation of a bronchus or bronchi, with secondary infection that usually involves the lower portion of the lung
bronchiectasis
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the bronchial tubes. Infection is often preceded by the common cold
bronchitis
A malignant lung tumor that originates in the bronchi; lung cancer
bronchogenic carcinoma
A chronic pulmonary disease characterized by increase beyond the normal in the size of air spaces distal to the terminal bronchiole, either from dilation of the alveoli or from destruction of their walls
emphysema
Pus in a body cavity, especially in the pleural cavity (pyothorax); usually the result of a primary infection in the lungs
empyema
Known as respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) of the premature infant; severe impairment of the function of respiration in the premature newborn.
hyaline membrane disease
A localized collection of pus by the destruction of lung tissue and microorganisms by white blood cells that have migrated to the area to fight infection
lung abscess
Accumulation of fluid in the pleural space, resulting in compression of the underlying portion of the lung, with resultant dyspnea
pleural effusion
Inflammation of both the visceral and parietal pleura
pleuritis (pleuisy)
Inflammation of the lungs cuased primarily by bacteria, viruses, and chemical irritants
pneumonia
A collection of air or gas in the pleural cavity. The air enters as the result of a perforation through the chest wall of the pleura covering the lung
pneumothorax
Swelling of the lungs caused by an abnormal accumulation of fluid in the lungs, either in the alveoli or the interstitial spaces
pulmonary edema
The obstruction of one or more pulmonary arteries by a thrombus (clot) that dislodges from another location, and is carried through the venous system to the vessels of the lung.
Pulmonary embolism
The hypertrophy of the right ventricle of the heart resulting from disorders of the lungs, pulmonary vessels, or chest wall
pulmonary heart disease
An infectious disease caused by the tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and characterized by inflammatory infiltrations, formation of tubercles, and caseous necrosis in the tissues of the lungs
tuberculosis
The accumulation of carbon deposits in the lungs due to breathing smoke or coal dust; black lung disease; coal worker's pneumoconiasis
anthracosis
A lung disease resulting from inhalation of asbestos particles
asbestosis
A lung disease resulting from inhalation of cotton, flax, and hemp; brown lung disease
byssinosis
Lung disease resulting from inhalation of silica dust. characterized by formation of small nodules
silicosis
The examination of the interior of the bronchi using a lighted, flexible tube knows as a bronchoscope
bronchoscopy
The use of high-energy electromagentic waves passing through the body onto a photogtaphic film, to produce a picture of the internal structures of the body for diagnosis and therapy
chest x-ray
The examination of the interior of the larynx using a lighted, flexible tube known as a laryngoscope (or endoscope)
laryngoscopy
The visual imaging of the distribution of ventilation or blood flow in the lungs by scanning the lungs after the patient has been injected with or has inhaled radioactive material
lung scan
Physicians use this variety of tests to assess respiratoyr function
pulmonary function tests
A specimen of material expectorated from the mouth.
sputum specimen
The use of a needle to collect pleural fluid for laboratory analysis, or to remove excess pleural fluid or air from the pleural space
thoracentesis
Arterial blod gas(es)
ABD(s)
acid-fast bacilli
AFB
anteroposterior (from front to back)
AP
acute respiratory disease (or distress)
ARD
adult respiratory distress syndrome
ARDS
acute respiratory failure
ARF
carbon dioxide
CO2
chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
COPD
cardiopulmonary resuscitation
CPR
chest x-ray
CXR
diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus
DPT
intermittent positive pressure breathing
IPPB
left lower lobe
LLL
left upper lobe
LUL
oxygen
O2
posteroanterior (from back to front)
PA
partial pressure of carbon dioxide dissolved in the blood
PaO2
Pneymocyctis carinii pneumonia
PCP
pulmonary function test(s)
PFT(s)
purified protein derivative
PPD
respiration
R
respiratory distress syndrome
RDS
right lowe lobe
RLL
Right middle lobe
RML
right upper lobe
RUL
sudden infant death syndrome
SIDS
shortness of breath
SOB
tuberculosis
TB
temperature, pulse, and respiration
TPR
upper respiratory infection
URI