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75 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is on of the most notable inheritable diseases that almost always effects the respiratory system?
CF
What does CF require to mainfest the disease?
defective gene from both the mother and father
The actual genetic composition of a gene is referred to as what?
genotype
What is phenotype?
clinical manifesations caused by morphological, physiological, or biochemical alteratoins of that genetic mutation
What can CF affect in the body?
may affect any secretory ogran of the body (lungs, liver, pancreas, sweat glands)
What are some factors that can influence the development of asthma in children?
1. mother who smokes while preganant
2. Viral infections (RSV)
3. Surfactant -B deficiency
The first period of life, is termed embryonic period, begins at approx. how many days after conception?
day 26
All human cells originate from one of three embryological germ tissues, know as?
1. endoderm
2. mesoderm
3. ectoderm
What type of tissue lines the repiratory syste and is considered endodermal in origin?
epithelium
The pulmonary artieries and veins form from where?
Pul artieries form as buds off the 6th pair aortic arches, and rudimentary pulomanry veins emerge fro mthe developing heart
Injury to the 26th day development of the budding respiratory system can lead to congenital anomalies including?
1. tracheoesophageal fistulas
2. choanal atresia,
3. pulmonary hypoplasia
4. complex heart and vascular anomalies
At wha stage of gestation and the name does th elung appearance of glandular structure, hense the name of the 2nd stage?
6 week/pseudoglanular stage
The 1st period, termed _____________, begins at approximately day 26 after conception as an outpouching of the primitive foregut.
Embroyonic period
All human cells originate from one of three embryological germ tissues called?
1. endoderm
2. mesoderm
3. ectoderm
The epithelium , or lining cells of the entire respiratory system are what type germ tissues?
endodermal in origin
Injury during when pulmonary artieries form as buds off the 6th pair of arotic arches and rudimentary pul. veines ermerge developing the heart can lead to what type of anomalies?
1. tracheoesphageal fistulas
2. choanal atresia
3. pulmonary hypoplasia
4. complex heart and vascular anomalies
What what week of gestation the lung has the appearance of a glandular strucuture?
glandular, hence the pseudoglandular stage
A single bud that develops off of an existing structure is termed what?
Monopodial bud
Airways that divide into two or more airways do so by what ?
Dichotomous branching
Absence and/or dysfunction of cilia, which is seen in what syndrome?
Kartagener's or primary cilia dyskinesia
What provides rigidity, especially for the trachea and moving distally, the amount of cartliage supporting the airway diseases as smooth muscle cells increase in number and assume the role of m/ting airway patency?
mESODERMDERIVED
The 3rd stage of development begins at what week and iscalled what stage?
7th week and is canalicular stage
At what weeks is the fetus potentially viable if born prematurely?
24-26 wks
At what stage does TYpe I/II cells furthur differentiate and elongate, dramatically increasing the surface area available for gaseous exchange?
Saccular stage 26-28 wlks
Type II pneumocytes contains what type of strucutures, that soon manufacture and secrete the vital pulmonary surfactant necessary to alter surface tension and keep the lungs inflated?
Lamellar bodies
Insufficient surfactant in premature infants can lead to development of a membrane that lines the alveolar cells and could interfer with gas exchange, what does this condition called?
Hyaline membrane disease and often develops in IRDS
what chemicals inside the fetal lung fluid helps the FRC of the lung during intrauterine life?
1. pulmonary sufactants
2. Aspirated amniotic fluids
3. plasma ultrafiltrate from the microcirculation
Within a week of uterine implantation, fingerlike projections called what, arise from the embryo's aorta and invade the uterine endometrium?
Chorionic villi
The umbilical cord consists of what?
single vein (returning blood to fetus)
Two umbilical arteries ( carrying blood to the placenta)
The Maternal blood in the intervillous space has a mean PaO2 of approximately what pressure?
50 mmHg.
Other than partial pressure of oxygen that allows uptake to the tissue, what else aids oxygen uptake by the fetus?
Bohr effect
what is the main reason that signs cyanosis is fairly immediate versus adults?
b/c of the left shift of the HbF dissosciation curve..
Oxygenated blood form the placenta is carried in the umbilical vein to the fetal circuatlation via what system?
Hepatic
What is the foramen ovale?
opening inthe atrium that seperates left from the right and during fetal life, 50% of blood is shunted from the rt atrium into the left atrium
What is the ductus arteriosus
opening in the descending aorta, due to high pulmonary pressure inthe lungs, only 10% of blood entering the PA actually flows into the lungs.
What keeps the ductus arteriosus open?
1. volume of blood flowing through
2.
A few days before birth (if at term), Lung fluid production stops, favoring change of fluid dynamics, then what happens?
Protien concnetration of fluid in the pulmonary capillaries is higher that the protien concentration of fluid in alveolus, lung fluid begins to move into the circulation
Labor also helps drying of the lung through what increase chemcial?
catecholamines
How much of the fluid is removed from the lungs during vaginal delivery?
1/3 and the pulmonary capillaries clear the remaining fluid through the lymphatics
After delivery, high transpulmonary pressure gradients must take place for normal breathing, how much pressure does it take for the to happen?
40cmH2O
Anatomical closure of the ductus, through fibrosis, normally occurs with how many weeks?
3 weeks
When does the foramen ovale close?
permanent closure of the tissu flap may take up to several months
what age does most infants are capable of full oral ventilatoin?
4-5 months
How does a infant suck and breath at the same time?
during swallowing, infant's larynx provides a direct connection to the naso pharyns. two serpeate pathways.
What is the average dead spcae of neborn?
.75lb/lb of body weight.
Rule of Thumb when discussing difference btw bronchi and bronchioles?
Airways >2mm in diameter contain cartliage are bronchi
Airways <2mm without cartliage are bronchiloes
Do to the lack of rigidity of infants airways, what types of conditions can arise from lack of rigidity?
Tracheomalacia or bronchomalacia
What two combinations account for a significant percentage of wheezy illnesses in young infants?
anatomical differences (male<female) and airway smooth muscle reactivity
The pulmonary artery and its branches are classifed as either conventional arteries or ?
supernumeray arteries
Postnatally, conventional arteries continue to branch until what age?
18 months of age
After lung transplanted what conditions plague transplant recipients?
1. airways mechanics
2. vascular supply
3. lymphatics
4. v/q mismatch
5. immuniological defense mechanics
What are some causes of apnea in infants?
Sepsis, anemia, GERD, and lung disease
When does apnea periods usually occur in infants?
sleep or oral feeding
Rule of Thumb for Apnea in a newborn is?
it is characterized by short periods of respiratory cessation (10seconds or less) that do not result in adverse physiological changes
What is FRC?
lung volume represents a volume that is in reserve
Low lung volumes seem to be a significant disadvantage. They can lead to what problems in the lungs?
1. airway closure
2. atelectasis
3. v/q mismatch
4. shunting
5 resultant hypoxemia
What does autopeeping in infants called when narrowing of the glottis or larynx helps maintain lung volumes?
laryngeal braking
Ossification of the ribs and sternum continues to what age ?
25 years
What does the term mean SPECIFIC Compliance?
compliance expressed per unit of lung volume (FRC)
How is Airway Resistance defined?
as the pressure gradient required to produce flow through an airway
Upper airway resistance accounts for at least____________% of total resistance through the respiratory system
50%
The rate at whch the lungs and airways empty is termed what?
Time constant (flow/volume or 1/time) of the lung
Why does infants time constant increase?
b/c of their airways rapid emptying
The 1st rib and the upper sternum form this opening?
thoracic inlet or Operculum
The 1st rib and the upper sternum form this opening?
thoracic inlet or Operculum
Where the manubrium and body of the sternum meed the anterior chest wall shows a slight depression that forms an obliqu angle called what?
angle of Louis
At this juncture (angle of louis) what structures lie underneath this area of the breast plate?
trachea divides into the right and left mainstem bronchi
What muscels contribute to the primary means of ventilation?
diaphragm and intercostal muscles
The diaghram is a fibers converge into a broad connective sheet called?
central tendon
The diaphragm accoutns for approximately what percentage of the change in thoracic volume during quiet inspiration?
75%
What system provides both motor and senor pathways to the lung?
ANS
How many phrenic nerve sites are innervated in the diaphragm?
two (paired)
The phrenic nerves originate as branches of what spinal nerves?
C3-C5 in the cervical plexus
How does the phrenic nerve travel thorugh the body?
Enter the chest in front of the subclavin arteries, lateral to the carotid arteries. Runs down each side of the mediastinum in front of the hilar structures.
The intercostal nerves leave what site of the vertebral column.
T2-T11