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49 Cards in this Set

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Peter Singer claims that if it is in our power to make something good happen, without thereby sacrificing anything of comparable moral importance, we ought, morally, to do it
singer advances a principle and then offers a modified version of it that he propses to rely on his argument. How does the modified version of the principle differ from the orginial version?
the modified version only has implications in cases where helping others wouldn't require giving up somethin gof moral signifcance, whereas the original version isnt limited in this way
According to singer, proximity and distance matter
little to morally
-pragmatically and emotionally it will matter
if follos from singers argument that we all ought morally to be working full time to incrase the balance of happiness over misery
false, only prevent BAD things from happening
at the begining of book II someone is characterized as having given up the argument too easily. Who?
How many kinds of good does Glaucon identify?
When it comes to the value of justice, Socrates and the masses (as Glaucon portrays them) agree that justice is good
for its consequences
into which class of good does socrates place justice
both good for itself and for its consequences
where does glaucon begin his presentation of the thrid point which he mentioned in 358c?
360e: As for the choice between the lives...
Glaucon has been convinced by Thrasymachus that Socrates' view of justice is mistaken
Glaucons account of the orgigin and nature of justice suggests that people who are just are..
-unwillingly just for the consequnces becuase they cant be injust well
-lack power
Glaucon sets out what he takes to be a common view, according to which a supremely powerful person
-acts injustly
-does whatever he wants
glaucon reconuts the Ring of gyges story to convince us that
those who practice justice do it unwillingly
Glaucon, when he moves to the third part of his challenge to Scorates, say he will "Separate the most just and the most unjust". What does he have in mind?
if he can take away what he gains from justice, is there anything for its own sake?
-decides which is better
Why does Glaucon have us consider a just person who has the "greatest reputation" for injustice?
no one will want to be just who doesnt get the credit for it?
"This, then, is the way people praise justice and find falut with injustice." (363e). This involves what?
consequences for being just
1. Afterlife
2. Decsendants
According to Adeimantus what lesson will those who are clever extract from listening to the way in which justice is praised? They will be led to think that...
-Justice isnt worth it w.o consequences
-if you can get away with it you would do the bad thing
Adeimantus suggests that both the just and the unjust an escape punishment by the gods but that only the unjust get the benefits of sins and transgressions
According to Adeimantus the poets tell us that the gods...
can be influenced by humans
Adeimantus reminds Socrates tha the gods punish the unjust in order to convice Socrates that crime never pays
How many of those poeple who profess to praise justice have, according to Adeimantus, empasized the very presence of justice nt the soul, instead of mentioning only the benefits of having a reputation for justices
Adeimantus considers two objections to the position he and his brother are setting out. what single problem do both objections have (assuing their cliam is that the vlaue of justice is found only in the conssequences)?
both point to consequences so irrelevent
socrates thinks that Glaucon and Adeimantus are really convinced that the arguemnts they have presented are correct
why do Socrates and gluacon start discussing a city instead of continuing witht he topic of justice in an individual? They do it because...
there should be more justice in the larger thing
on what principle is Scorate's simple city founded?
that people are not self sufficeint
Socrates thinks that is best to divide the labor of the city so that
need many people because everyone is good at different things
socrates thinks that it is best to divide the lbor of the city so that
specilization = better production
what is Glaucon's complaint about Scorates' model city
no luxuaries
In the city they begin to imagine the emphasis is on individual independence and self-reliance instead of a mutual cooperation and interdependence
false.. check this question
what will a luxurious city need which was not necessary in the simpler city?
happy guardians/ police force
who should have the greatest freedo to concentrate on developing the special skills required for thier occupation
they conclude that, in the final analysis, a gentle nature is incompatible wtha spirited one
wars, socrates thinks should be fought by all the citizens
a fine and good guardian need not be...
needs to have
At 412 and following socrates argues that he best rulers will be those who...
are intellegent about determining which rule are best for the city
Socrates suggests that the city would be better off if those within it believed a nobel fiction. Why , according to socrates, would they be better off?
-do your own work
-everyone is related
-explains why people are different
when it comes to owning private property, socates and glaucon agree rulers and guardians should...
rulers and auxilleries shouldnt be allowed private proerty because they will be given too omuch power
adeimantus points out that, within the city socrates descries the guardians will not be very happy. Inresponse socrates argues..
it may not be true
-even so.. its not relevent: dont want the one group happy but hte whole group as happy as possible.
why must an ideal city avoid both severe poverty and excessive wealth among the cragtspeople, accroding to Socrates?
the former makes for luxuary, idleness and revolution, the latter for selfishness, bad workd, and revolution
Accoridng to Socrates his city will not be at a disadvantage when it comes to fighting really rich cities because...
1. use rich city to beat another richer city and give the rich city all the plunder
-if we get rich give it to their poorest and they will help us
if the offspring of a Guardian is inferior he must be sent off to join the other citizens.. why?
-must be good at what YOU are good at
-no families/dynasties
fill in the blank: children's games must be law abiding, Socrates argues, beause ______.
if their games are lawless and the chilren follow suit, isnt it impossible for them to become good, law abiding men?
According to socrates, passing laws on many subjects to cure social ills is
waste of time
-good people will already follow the laws
-bad men wont follow the anyway
which of the following is not on socrates list of cardinal vitures
Four are: temparance, justice, courage, wisdom
it follows from the definition Socrates offers tht courage is...
what sort of things should be feared by the mass
-not leaving it because of pains, pleasures, or fears
Socrates distinguishes between the rulers, the guardians and the rest of the citizens. when moderation exists in a city it exists, he thinks among which group?
all groups
At 428 socrates proposes to use an "arguemnt" by elimination in order to
-show where justice must be ther because already found temperance courage and wisdom
of the virtues socrates identifies which does he say allows the others to exist and continue
Scorates asks "are things called by the same name, whether they are bigger or smaller than on eanotherer, like or unlieke with respect to that to which that name applies? what answer is given?
"alike" the justice in the city and in the individual should be the same.