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104 Cards in this Set

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What are the three meninges of the brain?
Dura Mater, Arachnoid space (subarachnoid space), and the pia mater
What is the dura mater?
the tough outer membrame of the brain (meninge)
what layer meninge is it?
What is the arachnoid membrame?
It is the weblike meninge between the dura mater and the subarachnoid space.
What is the pia mater?
meninge that adheres to the CNS surface
Think it protects (pious mother)
What is the cerebral aqueduct?
tube that connects the 3rd and 4th ventricle
it connects two ventricles...
What happens when the cerebral aqueduct gets blocked?
If blocked by a tumor etc., the CSF gets blocked and the brain begins to expand. (called hydrocephalus)
How is hydrocephalus treated?
draining the excess fluid off of the brain and trying to remove the obstruction.
What are multipolar neurons?
more than two processes
# of processes
What are unipolar neurons?
have one process extending from cell body.
# of processes
What are bipolar neurons?
they have how processes extending from the body.
# of processes
What are multipolar intraneurons? What is their job?
No specific axon.
Their job is to integrate neural activity within a single brain structure; not communicate different structures with eachother.
What is the soma and what does it do in the neuron?
(also called a cell body.) it is the metabolic center of the neuron.
picture... food
What are the dendrites and what do they do in the neuron?
they are the short processes emanating from the cell body.
They receive most of synaptic contacts from other neurons
What is the axon hillock and what does it do in the neuron?
cone-shaped region at junction between the axon and the cell body. it is where the AP's are summed at.
What is the axon in the neuron?
it is the long narrow process that projects from the cell body.
What is the purpose of the myelin in the neuron?
it is the fatty substance around many axons that insulates to speed up transmission
What are the nodes of ranvier?
they are the gaps between the sectionsof myelin on the axon.
what are the synaptic buttons on the neuron? What do they do?
They are the endings of axon branches. They release chemicals into the synapse.
What are the four types of glial cells?
schwann cells
swan sang via
with an astronaut
what do oligodendrocytes do?
They form myelin sheaths thereby increasing the speed and efficiency of axonal conduction.
What are oligodendrocytes?
they are the glial cells that wrap around axons of some neurons in the CNS.
What are schwann cells?
the glial cells in the PNS. One schwann cell = one myelin segment.
What can schwann cells do?
they can guide axonal regeneration after damage in PNS
What do microglia do?
trigger inflammatory responses and engulf cellular debris in response to injury or disease.
What do astrocytes do?
play role in passage of chemicals from blood into CNS neurons
stars take the chemicals from blood to the brain
What are the largest glial cells?
What are tracts?
bundles of axons in the CNS
What are nerves?
bundles of axons in the PNS
What does anterior mean?
towards the nose end (rostral)
What does posterior mean?
towards the tail end (caudal)
What does dorsal mean?
toward the surface of the back or top of the head
think human that is on all fours with their head pointing forward like a dog.
What does ventral mean?
towards the surface of the chest or the bottom of the head.
think human that is on all fours with their head pointing forward like a dog.
What does medial mean?
towards the midline of the body
think human that is on all fours with their head pointing forward like a dog.
What does lateral mean?
away from the midline of the body
think human that is on all fours with their head pointing forward like a dog.
What does superior mean?
What does superior mean?
further away from
Where does the horizontal plane divide?
divides through nose and through ears. think taking your forhead off.
Where does the frontal plane divide?
Divides where if you slice it, your forhead would fall forward and your back of your head would fall back.
What is another name for the frontal plane?
Where does the sagittal plane divide?
divides down the corpus callosum
What is included in the telencephalon?
cerebral cortex
limbic system
basal ganglia
What is included in the diencephalon?
What does the thalamus do?
sensory relay nuclei
What does the hypothalamus do?
plays role in the regulation of motivated behaivors. controls hormone release by the pituitary.
What is included in the mesencephalon?
tectum and tegmentum
What does the tectum do?
inferior colliculi: auditory
superior colliculi: vision
what is included in the MYELENcephalon/(medulla)?
composed largly of tracts
origin of the reticular formation (species specific movements)
What is included in the metencephalon?
many tracts
what does the cerebellum play a role in?
What is the caudal part of the forebrain?
the precentral gyrus (motor cortex)
What is the role of the substantia nigra?
sensorimiotor system
degenerates in parkinson's disease
What is the role of the red nucleus?
it is a component of the sensorimotor system and is located in the tegmentum
What is the role of the lateral geniculate nuclei?
recieves info from retinas
-> sends info to primary visual cortex
What is the role of the medial geniculate nuclei?
recieves info from inferior colliculi -> projects to primary auditory cortex
What is the corpus callosum?
The largest cerebral commissure. It connects the left and right brain hemispheres.
What is the general function of the frontal lob? (think the motor cortex is here)
reasoning, planning, parts of speech and movement, emotions, and problem solving.
What is the general funciton of the parietal cortex? (think: the somotosensory cortex is here)
perception of stimuli related to touch, pressure, temp, and pain.
What is the general function of the occipital lobe?
aspects of vision
What is the general funciton of the temporal lobe?
concerned with perception and recognition of audiory stimuli (hearing) and memory (b/c the hippocampus is there)
What does the shape of the hippocampus have to do with memory?
it completes the limbic circuit. It is involved in making new memories.
What is blood loss in hippocampus associated with?
Alzheimer's disease and other memory loss mental illnesses
What is included in the limbic system? (all hippos fornicate with single sex mammals :-)
Amygdala, hippocampus, fornix, cinculate cortex, septum, and mammilliary bodies.
What is limbic system involved in?
The four f's of behavior
What is the basal ganglia involved with?
voluntary movement
What is included in the basal ganglia?
Amygdala, <caudate putamen> striatum, and globus pallidus
Basla ganglia dies: What disease associated with this?
Parkinson's disease
What is L-Dopa used for?
It is the chemical precursor of dopamine and it penetrates the BBB then is converted to dopamine once inside the brain.
When is L-Dopa given to a patient? (What does it treat)
for a person with parkinson's disease (their substantia nigra deteriorates). it doesn't stop tremors; it lessens them.
How do sodium potassium pumps work?
they continually exchange three sodium ions inside neuron for two potassium ions outside of the neuron to maintain resting potiential between action potientials
What happens during the rising phase of an action potiential?
at beginning, the sodium channels open, in middle potassium channels end the sodium channels close.
What is an IPSP?
Inhibitory post synaptic potiential (PS hyperpolarization)
-has graded response
-has decremental transmission
What is an EPSP?
post synaptic depolarization
-has graded response
-has decremental transmission
What kind of response does an action potiential have?
-"All or nothing" Response
-NOT decremental (they are same as they travel down the axon)
What is a ligand?
a molecule that binds to another molecule. neurotransmitters are ligands of their receptors.
How does deactivation occur at a synapse?
reuptake or degration
What is reuptake?
it is where the NT goes back up into the presynaptic buttons almost immediatley after they are released at presynaptic membrame. THIS ONE IS MORE POPULAR!!
What is degration?
Where the NT is broken apart by an enzyme after it is released from presynaptic membrame (example: Ach and AchEsterase)
What are small molecule transmitters?
they are transmitters that are released directly at synapse or metabolic receptor
(example: Ach) They produce fast rapid signals.
What are large molecule transmitters?
peptides. They move slower and produce longer lasting signals.
What is coexistence?
a neuron that contains two NT's: one small and one large
What are endorphins?
neuropeptide endogenous opiates
What do endorphins do?
they activate pain suppression and increase a please response.
What are benzodiazepines?
anxiety reducting, sedative, and anticonvulcent medications. (GABA agonist/ remember that GABA inhibits)
They hyperpolarize the neuron
What is a CT?
combines 2D images to create a 3D image
What is a PET?
Positron Emission Togography
They inject radioactive 2-DG and then examine your brain.
What is a MRI?
Produces high resolution images/ nothing injected
What is a fMRI?
visualizes oxygen flow in the brain. Nothing is injected.
Can make 3D images of the entire brain
Better spatial resolution of the brain than PET
what are contrast x-rays?
inject something that absorbs x-rays less or more than surrounding tissue. example: cerebral angiography
What is an EMG?
measures muscle tension.
What is an EEG?
measures brain waves
What is an EOG?
measures eye movement?
What is a stereotaxic instrument?
holds head steady and guides the deice to be inserted into the head
What is an aspiration lesion?
removes piece of cortex by suction
What is a radiofrequency lesion?
heat destroys the lesion in the brain?
What does kainic acid do?
it destroys the cell bodies
(chem. lesion)
What does 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) do?
it destroys noradrenergic and dopaminergic neurons.
(chem. lesion)
What is the RIAT?
Reynolds ____ Attention test
(story and repeat it back)
What does an open-field test measure?
assessment of species specific general activities
What does the morris water maze measure?
tests spatial abilities. the rat must find hidden platform in an opaque pool.
What does the elevated plus maze measure?
measures rat's anxiety (think a cross looking maze up in the air)
What does the radial arm maze measure?
tests spatial abilities (think of a sunshine shaped maze)