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70 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
anterior
head end
posterior
tail end
ventral
front side
dorsal
back side
genital papilla
only found in females
covers genital opening
directs flow of urine
REPRODUCTIVE
scrotal sac/scrotum
contain testes from birth to adulthood
males only
REPRODUCTIVE
urogenital opening female
urination
opening to reproductive tract
another hole for bowel movements
EXECRETORY/REPRODUCTIVE
urogenital opening male
urinate
where penis protrudes when erect
EXECRETORY
caecum
small blind-ended sac found at the juncture of ilium and large intestine
houses bacterial symboints that help break down celulose
DIGESTIVE
gall bladder
stores bile
DIGESTIVE
greater omentum
primary mecentary
folded membrane that acts as storage membrane for fat
DIGESTIVE
kidney
- extracts foreign substances and wastes from bloodstream
- helps with body fluid regulationa and excretion of nitrogenous wastes like urea
- three regoins: cortex, medulla, pelvis
- hormones secreted: renin -> regulates blood pressure; erythroportein -> stiumulates red blood cells production; vitamin D -> controls calcium and phosphorus metabolism
EXCRETORY
pelvis ( kidney )
funnel-shaped chamber in kidney that is expanded by ureter
medulla
-part of kidney
-medullary tissue
- characterized by high solute concentration, so when "pre-urine" flows down loops of Henle, water flows out of loop -> medullary tissue
cortex
-outermost portion of kidney
large intestine
-reclaimation of water at end of digestive cycle
-synthesizes body proteins & vitamins [k]
-conversion of various amino acids
-deanimnation of amino acids
-movement of bowel
DIGESTIVE
liver
-synthesizes bile, plasma protein, lipids, cholesterol
-stores vitamins, irons, glycogen
-converts glucose -> glycogen, glucose ->fat, glycogen -> glucose, lactic acid -> glycogen, excess amino acids -> carbs & fats, anmonia ( toxic nitrogenous wastes ) -> urea ( less toxic form )
- recycles hemoglobin components
- excretes bile pigments
- destroys damaged red blood cells
- maintain normal concentration of blood glucose
- metabolic activies
- proten metabolism
- detoxifies chemicals, pollutants, poisons
DIGESTIVE
mesentary
- prevents small intestine from knotting/tangling
- holds together small intestine
pancreas
- secretes digestive enzymes & other substances into small intestine via pancreatic duct
- endocrine & exocrine organ
- endocrine function: to secrete hormones
- exocrine: digestive blood
DIGESTIVE
peritoneum
- lines abdominal cavity
DIGESTIVE
small intestine
- three sections: duodenum, ileum , jejunum
- digestion of food & absorption of nutrients
DIGESTIVE
duodenum
- bile & enzymes from gall bladder and pancreas enter here to small intestine
- joins jejunum to stomach
ileum
- absorb products of digestion
- end of small intestine
jejunum
- moves bowel
- contains muscles to move food
- center of small intestine
spleen
- filters out & destroys dead blood cells
- stores & releases red blood cells into bloodstream
- recycles cells in development of white blood cells
LYMPHATIC
stomach
- breaks down food
- absorbs water
- temporarily stoes food & releases it slowly into the duodenum
- important site of enzyme production
DIGESTIVE
umbilical artery
- aorta sends great deal of exygenated blood straight back to placenta through here
( blood from fetus -> placenta )
REPRODUCTIVE
umbilical cord
connects fetus to placenta of mother; later become navel
umbilical vein
- single large vein
- carries oxygenated blood from placenta to fetus
urinary bladder
- urine is temporarily stored
EXCRETORY
atrium
- structure of heart
- right: receives de-oxygenated blood from superior vena cava & inferior vena cava
- left: receives oxygenated blood from left & right pulmonary veins
CIRCULATORY
cardiac valve
- controls movement of food from mouth to stomach
DIGESTIVE
diaphragm
- shelf of muscle extending above ribcage
- separtaes thoracic cavity from digestive cavity
- controlled by phrenic nerve
- critically important in respirtation -> in order to draw air into lungs, diaphragm contracts, enlarging thoracic cavity & reducing pressure in thoracic cavity
- helps to expel vomit, feces, urine from body by increasing pressure in digestive cavity
larynx
- organ in neck of mammals involved in protection of trachea & sound producion
- houses vocal cords, locate just below tract where pharynx splits into trachea and esophagus
- sound generated in larynx
- during swallowing, larynx closes to prevent swallowed material from entering lungs
RESPIRATORY
lung
- transport oxygen from atmosphere into bloodstream
- excrete carbon dioxide from blood to atmosphere
- regulation of hydrogen-ion concentration
- nonrespiratory functions
^ influence concentration of biologically active substances and drugs used in medicine in arterial blood
^ filter out small blodd clots formed in veins
^ serve as physical layer of soft, shock-absorvent protection for heart, which lungs flank and nearly enclose
RESPIRATORY
penis
- male reproductive organ
- urintation
EXCRETORY/REPRODUCTIVE
pericardium
- double-walled sac that contains heart & root of great vessels
- fibrous: most superficial; protects heart, anchors it to surrounding walls, prevents it from overfilling with blood
- serous: deep to fibrous pericardium; two layers to lubricate heart to prevent friction from occuring during heart activity
CIRCULATORY
rugae
- in stomach, internal surface -> allow stomach expansion after injestion of food
DIGESTIVE
testes
- produce sperm and male sex hormones
REPRODUCTIVE
thoracic cavity
- chamber of body that is protected by thoracic wall
- includes: heart, great vessles, other vascular structures, trachea, bronchii, lungs, esophagus, thymus gland, structures of nervous and lymphatic systems
thymus glands
- partially covers anterior position of heart and extends along trachea to larynx
- development and maintenance of immune system
- maturation of T cells
- hormones secreted: thymic hormone -> stimulates lymphocyte development
IMMUNE
trachea
- tube extending from larynx to bronchi
- lined with cartilage rings which reinforce trachea and prevent it from collapsing on itself during breathing
RESPIRATORY
thyroid gland
- double lobed structure in the neck
- produces hormones that regulate the rate of metabolism & affect the growth and rate of function of many other systems in the body
- hormones secreted: thyroxine -> increases metabolic rate; affects growth; calcitonin -> controls level of calcium in blood
ENDOCRINE
ventricle
- heart chamber which collects blood from atrium and pumps it out of heart
- right: pumps blood into pulmonary circulation for lungs
- left: pumps blood into systemic circulation for rest of body
CIRCULATORY
common bile duct
carries bile to right and left hepatic ducts, which converge to form the common hepatic duct -> enter superior end of common bile duct ad empty into duodenum, or enter cystic duct to be stored in gall bladder; inferior end with pancreatic duct
CIRCULATORY
ductus arteriosis
shunt connecting pulmonary artery to aortic arch that allows most of blood from right ventricle to bypass fetus' fluid-filled lungs in developing fetus
-protects lungs from being overworked and allows right ventricle to strengthen
CIRCULATORY
foramen ovale
allows blood to enter left atrium from right atrium; detour for not sending as many nutrients to developing lungs
CIRCULATORY
sphincter of oddi
controls scretions from liver, pancreas, gall bladder into duodenum off small intestine
DIGESTIVE
cystic duct
short duct that joins gall bladder to small intestine
- bile can flow in both directions between gall bladder and common hepatic duct and common bile duct
DIGESTIVE
hepatic duct
right and left hepatic duct joins cystic duct to form common bile duct
DIGESTIVE
coronary arteries
blood vessels that supply blood for heart muscle (myocardium) itself
-epicardial coronary arteries: run on surface of heart
-classified as "end circulation" ( represent only source of blood supply to myocardium )
-right and left coronary artery both originate from root of aorta, immediately above aortic valve
CIRCULATORY
dorsal aorta
vitelline vein from yolk-sac; prolonged backward on lateral aspect of notochord
- gives branches to yolk-sac -> continued backward through body-stalk as umbilical arteries
- combine to become descending aorta
inferior vena cava
- large vein that carries deoxygenated blood from lower half of body into heart
- enters right atrium @ lower right, back side of heart
CIRCULATORY
superior vena cava
- large, yet short vein that carries deoxygenated blood from upper half of body to right atrium
CIRCULATORY
pulmonary arteries
- carry deoxygenated blood from heart to lungs
CIRCULATORY
pulmonary veins
- carry oxygenated blood from lungs to heart ( 4x )
CIRCULATORY
renal artery
- supply kidney with blood
- in kidney, each artery divides into four or five branches ( most lie between renal vein and ureter )
CIRCULATORY
renal vein
- veins that drain kidney
- connect to inferior vena cava
- singular to each kidney
ureter
- duct that carries urine from kidneys to urinary bladder
- muscular tubes that can propel urine along by motions of peristalsis
epididymus
narrow, tightly-coiled tube connecting efferent decuts from rear of each testicle to its vas deferens
- role in storage of sperm and ejaculation
REPRODUCTIVE
penis
- male reproductiv eorgan
- male organ for urination
REPRODUCTIVE
testes
male generative glands in animals
- produce sperm
- produce male sex hormones
REPRODUCTIVE
vas deferens/ductus deferens
- during ejaculation the smooth muscle in the wall of vas deferens contracts reflexively, propelling the sperm forward
- sperm transwferred from vas deferents into urethra, collecting fluids from male accessoy sex glands en route
REPRODUCTIVE
vagina
- tubular tract leading from uterus to exterior of body in females
- provides path for menstrual flids to leave body
- sexual activity
- giving birth
REPRODUCTIVE
uterus
- major reproductive organ in females
- accept fertilized ovium which becomes planted into the end of ometrium, derives nourishment from blood vessles which develop exclusively for this purpose
REPRODUCTIVE
oviduct/Fallopian tubes
two very fine tubes leading from ovaries of female mammals into uterus
- pushes eggs; fertilization takes place here
REPRODUCTIVE
broad ligament
-wide fold of peritoneum that connects both side of uterus to walls and floor of pelvis; only in females
- mesentary for uterus, ovaries, and uterine tubes
- helps maintain uterus in position
REPRODUCTIVE
round ligament
- origiantes at uterine horns, in the parametrium
- maintenance of the antevision of uterus
REPRODUCTIVE
urethra
- tube that connects urinary bladder to outside of body
- males: passage of sperm
- pass urine to outside
REPRODUCTIVE/EXCRETORY
rectum
- final straight portion of large intesting in some mammals, terminating in anus
- temporary storage facility fo animal feces