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28 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Functions of the nervous system
1)Integration of body processes
2)Control of voluntary effectors and reflexes
3)Control of involuntary effectors and mediation of autonomic reflexes
4)Response to stimuli
5)Responsible for conscious thought and perception, emotions, personality, the mind
Structural Divisions of the nervous system
1)Central Nervous System (CNS)

2)Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Central Nervous System
The brain and spinal cord
Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
The nerves, ganglia, receptors, etc.
Functional Divisions of the Nervous System
1)The Voluntary Nervous System (Somatic Division)

2)The Autonomic Nervous System
Voluntary Nervous System (Somatic)
Willful control of effectors (skeletal muscles) and conscious perception

Mediates voluntary reflexes
Autonomic Nervous System
Control of autonomic effectors - smooth muscles, cardiac muscle, glands. Responsible for "visceral" reflexes
Functional cells of the nervous system
Neuroglia (glial cells)
Supporting cells of the nervous system, there is a functional interdependence of neuroglial cells and neurons
These cells are phagocytic to defend against pathogens. Also monitor the condition of neurons.
Ependymal Cells
Line the fluid-filled cavities of the brain and spinal cord. Play a role in production, transport, and circulation of the cerebrospinal fluid.
The outer layer of the schwann cell.
Connect one neuron with another. (i.e. connect the sensory neurons with the motor neurons)
Short branching process which receive stimuli from receptors or other neurons.
Trigger Zone
Area where chemically regulated gates and voltage regulated gates meet, usually at the junction of the axon and cell body, the axon hillock.
Nissl Substance
They manufacture the neurotransmitters which the neuron must secrete in large quantities. The neurotransmitter molecules are transported to the axon terminus by microfilaments and microtubules.
Anchor neurons to blood vessels, regulate the micro-environment of neurons, and regulate transport of nutrients an wastes to and from neurons
Chemically regulated in gates
Chemically gated ion channels which respond to stimulation by neurotransmitters.
Motor Neurons
Carry messages to muscles, glands, or effectors. They are said to be efferent (they carry messages away from the CNS).
Produce the myelin sheath in the CNS which insulates and protects axons as well as providing for saltatory conduction.
Satellite Cells
Surround cell bodies of neurons in ganglia. Their role is to maintain the micro-environment and provide insulation for the ganglion cells.
Schwann Cells
Produce the myelin sheath in the PNS. the myelin sheath protects and insulates axons, maintains their micro-environment, and enables them to regenerate and reestablish connection with receptors or effectors.
Sensory Neurons
Carry a message to the CNS. They are Afferent, (Carrying messages toward the brain and spinal cord).
Two types of cytoplasmic extensions
Dendrites and Axon
Cytoplasmic Extensions
Are attached to the cell body or cyton and connect other cells, receptors, and effectors. Composed of Dendrites and the Axon.
Multipolar Neuron

Where are they found
Has many poles or processes, the dendrites and axon.

Motor neurons and interneurons
Bipolar neurons
Have two processes, a dendrite and an axon.
Unipolar neuron

Found in?
Have only one process, classified as an axon.

Most of the body's sensory neurons. Their dendrites are the exposed branches connected to receptors, the axon carries the action potential in to the CNS.