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78 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Primary parts of the nervous system
Central nervous system
Peripheral nervous system
Nerve
Bundles of neurons that connect the brain and spinal cord with other parts of the body.
A bundle or group of nerve fibers located within the brain or spinal cord.
A tract
Ascending tracts
Carry nerve impulses toward the brain
Descending tracts
carry nerve impulses away from the brain
A nerve center made up of cluster of nerve cell bodies outside the central nervous system.
A ganglion
Network of intersecting nerves
Plexus
Supply of nerves to a body part
innervation
The sites in the sensory organs that receive external stimulation.
Receptors
anything that activates or excites a nerve and causes an impulse.
stimulus
wave of excitation transmitted through nerve fibers and neurons
Impulse
An automatic involuntary response to some change, either inside or outside the body
Reflex
Basic cell of the nervous system
neuron
Neuron electrical activity
Brain waves
Afferent neurons
Sensory neurons
Connecting neurons
associative neurons -> carry impulses from one neuron to another.
Efferent neurons
Motor neurons -> carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord and toward muscle and glands
root like processes that receive impulses and conduct them to the cell body
dendrites
Process that extends away from the cell body and conducts impulses away from the nerve cell.
Axon
the fatty tissue that protects the axons
Myelin
the space between a neuron and a receptor organ or between two neurons
Synapses
A chemical substance that makes it possible for messages to be transmitted.
A neurotransmitter.
Neurotransmitter that influences muscle action
Acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter that influences mood and thought
Dopamine
Neurotransmitter that is naturally occuring and released to help relieve pain
Endorphins
Neurotransmitter that responds to hypotension and physical stress.
Norepinephrine
Neurotransmitter that influences sleep, hunger, pleasure and recognition.
Seratonin
Star-shaped supportive and connective cells of the nervous system
Glial cells/ neuroglia
white protective covering that is madeup of glial cells and covers some parts of the spinal cord, the white matte of the brain
Myelin Sheath
central nervous system
Brain and spinal cord
Connective tissue that encloses the brain and spinal cord
Meninges
Thick tough outermost membrane of the meninges
Dura matter
Space that is located between the dura membrane and the arachnoid membrane
Subdural space
Membrane which is the second layer of the meninges
Arachnoid Membrane
Subarachnoid space
Contains the cerebrospinal fluid.
Third layer of the meninges
Pia matter
clear colorless fluid that flows throughout the brain and around the spinal cord
Cerebrospinal fluid
cerebrum
Highest level of thought
Thalamus
relays sensory stimuli
Hypothalamus
controls vital bodily functions
cerebellum
coordinates muscular activity and balance
Brainstem
Most protected part of the brain. controls heart rate and breathing
Largest uppermost part of the brain
cerebrum
outerlayer of cerebrum and is arranged in deep folds
Cerebral cortex
divisions of cerebrum
Left and right hemisphere.
Number of lobes in the cerebrum
Four. named after the bone of the cranium that covers it
Names of the lobes
Frontal, occipital, parietal and temporal lobes
Functions of the Frontal lobe
Motor functions
memory
Behaviour
Functions of the occipital lobe
Eyesight
Functions of the Parietal lobe
Receives and interprets nerve impulses from sensory receptors.
Functions of the Temporal lobe
Controls senses of hearing
smell and the ability to create, store and access new information.
Stalk-like portion of the brain that connects the cerebral hemispheres with the spinal cord.
Brain stem
Three parts of brain stem
mid brain
pons
medulla
headache
cephalalgia
headache syndrome characterised by sudden, throbbing sharp pain.
Migraine headaches
Concentrated pain on one side . severe pain than migraines
Cluster headaches
Congenital herniation of brain substance through a gap in the skull
encephalocele
congenital herniation of meninges through a defect in the skull or spinal column
meningocele
Condition in which there is an abnormally increased amount of CSF within the ventricles of the brain
Hydrocephalus
Inflammation of the meninges of the brain or spinal cord
Meningitis
disease of the brain with symptoms of memory loss,impaired cognition and personality changes
Alzheimer's disease
Inflammation of the brain
encephalitis
Syndrome that commonly occurs after a viral infection, linked to giving asprin to kids who suffer from viral infection
Reye's syndrome
Disease because of inadequate levels of dopamine
Parkinson's disease
fatal infection of CNS caused by tetanus bacteria
Lock Jaw
Inability to recall past experiences
Amnesia
Violent shaking up or jarring of the brain
concussion
Bruising of brain tissue
cerebral contusion
collection of blood trapped in the brain tissues
cranial hematoma
fainting
Syncope
Mind and senses are dulled to environmental stimuli
Stupor
cyclic state of alternating sleep and wake cycles
Persistent vegetative state
Reversible condition that comes on suddenly with high fever, intoxocation and shock
Delirium
Slowly progressing decline in memory , thinking and judgement
Dementia
Abnormal growth within the brain which can be benign or malignant
Brain tumor
Amount of pressure inside the skull
Intercranial Pressure
cerebrovasular accident
stroke
Stroke that occurs when blood flow to the brain is blocked
Ischemic stroke