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28 Cards in this Set

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How large is the liver? Which lobe is larger? Where is the gallbladder positioned?
4 lb.--the right--under the right lobe
From where does the blood supply for the liver originate?
25% from the hepatic artery and 75% from the hepatic portal vein
Name the nine functions of the liver(the mexican organ).
Metabolic processing, detox, plasma protein synth., storage, Vitamin D activation, bacteria and old RBC removal, excretion of cholesterol and bilirubin, bile salt production, and somatomedin production
What is the basic functional unit of the liver? How many do we have? What is in the center of the doughnut shape?
The Lobule--500 to 1000--central vein that drains to the hepatic vein
What are the spaces between rows of cells that represent liver capillaries? What special cell type do they contain? What does this cell do?
Sinusoids--Kupffer Cells--removes bacteria and dead RBC's
What structure drains bile from the liver to the gallbladder?
Bile canaliculi
What is defined as an increase in resistance to flow in the liver? What does it result in? What else?
Cirrhosis--Edema because of replacement of liver tissue with connective tissue--Vericoele which is a pooling of blood in the capillaries leading to the portal system resulting in rupture
Where do the bile cannaliculi drain to?
The hepatic ducts
What is the name for the sphincter on the hepatic ducts that controls bile flow?
The Sphincter of Oddi
What controls Sphincter of Oddi activity?
Cholecystokinin(produced by the intestinal mucus in response to undigested fat presence) and Secretin(not as important)
Does bile contain cholesterol? Stercobilin? Urobilin? Lecithin?
Yes--No--No-Yes
What are the two functions of bile salts?
Emulsification and micelle formation
What does emulsification do?
Pulls apart large fat globule so water soluble lipases can digest it
What is the name for the absorbed form of micelles?
Cholymicrons
Are bile salts reused?
Yes they are reabsorbed by the ilium
What does cholesterol do in the bile?
No known function but it can cause problems as gallstones
What are three treatment options for gallstones?
Sphincterotomy, Actigall(dissolves CHOLESTEROL stones only), and Lithotripsey(sound blast)
What are the four types of carbohydrate metabolism that the liver carries out?
Monosach. processing to G6P, Gluconeogenisis, and Glycogen Metabolism
How is glucose transported from the liver sinusoids to the hepatocytes?
Through Carrier Facilitated Diffusion
What is the name for breaking glycogen back to glucose?
Glycogenolysis
What are some protein related functions of the liver?
Plasma protein synthesis,transamination to make needed amino acids, and urea synthesis to eliminate ammonia
What are some lipids that are processed or produced by the liver?
Lipoproteins, cholesterol(made de novo), and phospholipids(produced by the liver for cell membranes)
Describe the different lipoproteins processed by the liver.
VLDL's, LDL's(bad cause this liver to organ transport), and HDL's(good cause this is organs to liver transport)
What are drugs that reduce cholesterol? Name them. How do they work?
Hypolipidemic drugs--Lipitor and Zocor which work by blocking cholesterol synth; Zetia which works by blocking cholesterol absorption
What two things besides glucose does the liver store really well?
Fat Soluble Vitamins(A,K,D) and iron
Endogenous and exogenous toxins are processed by what? What does this impact to a great extent?
The liver--Pharmacology
What two hormonal activities is the liver directly involved in?
Conversion of thyroxine(T4) to T3 and production of somatomedins which mediate GH
What is the most common Hepatits in the U.S.? Foreign countries? What is the most dangerous? Which two are sexually transmitted? Which of these two does severe liver damage?
Hep A--Hep E--HDV--Hep B and Hep C--Hep C