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24 Cards in this Set

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crier
in ancient greece and rome, these people who announced the news before the time of printed news
broadside
handbill, also called broadsheet, that was printed only on one side of the paper
connection between demand for news and advertising
demand for news and for advertising created a demand for newspapers. early newspaper ads were simple paragraphs of type promoting real estate, services, and goods for sale to retailers and consumers
mercantile press
early american newspapers that served businesses, shopkeepers, and trades-people. these newspapers also contained political content.
let the buyer beware
as newspapers grew in circulation they advertised a wide variety of products about which the editor had no personal knowledge and, therefore, assigned the reader the responsibility of determining the truth of an ad and the worth of a product
mass advertising
advertisements that aim to reach the largest number of people possible
advertising agent
agents that facilitated more efficient advertising. they bought space in multiple newspapers and magazines and resold that space to advertisers for one price. as a result, companies could reach consumers in different geographic areas without having to buy ad space from large numbers of publications.
product responsibility and advertising
the government assumed some responsibility for accurate labeling of products. in 1906 congress passed Pure Food & Drug act, and in 1914 established the FTC. Many businesses sidestepped the law and accurate labeling continues to be an issue today, particularly in the areas of harmful substances such as cigarettes, and so called health foods.
consumer culture
adverising--paid information about services, products, and ideas--is designed to entice an audience to buy a product or an idea. Critics argue that for U.S. consumers advertising has become the dominant form of popular culture and that values have become commercial, rather than emanating from traditional instituions such as the family, school, and religious institutions.
advertising affects prices
critics debate whether advertising raises or lowers the prices of goods. economies of scale vs. regional brands costing less.
economies of scale
the number of units produced brings down the average cost per unit.
differentiating the product
the process of getting the consumer to perceive one product as being different in nature and quality than other products
social costs of advertising
advertising can be manipulative and can influence news and entertainment content. television critics argue that the primary criterion for media programming is to cater to advertisers' needs and not to perform social, cultural, or political functions.
rational thinking abilities
the cognitive processing of information by considering options based on conscious comparison of influencing factors.
two perspectives on consumer behavior
cognitive perspective assumes advertising changes attitudes and knowledge. behavioral perspective assumes advertising reinforces people's actions.
promotion
the ways a company gains attention for its product or service, including advertising, pr, packaging, and personal selling.
joint product
term economists use when one product process serves two markets. For instance, the process of printing magazines serves readers in the consumer market and companies in the advertising market.
four effects of advertising
advertising influences consumers in four ways it makes people aware of goods, gives them price info, provides quality info, and gets them to identify with people and activities.
type of advertisements
advertisements can be classified in several ways, two common ones are geographic and purpose of ads. geographic coverage involves national, regional, and local advertising. the purpose of ads includes business ads, public service ads, and political ads.
advertising council
formed to promote the civilian efforts in world war II, this organization is supported by advertising agencies and media companies. it conducts advertising campaigns in the public interest.
targeted advertising
increasingly, advertisements are designed to appeal to a limited group of consumers who can be defined by demographics, geographic location or psychographics.
commercial and information blending
one advertising technique designed to enhance advertising effectiveness involves presenting ads that look like editorial content. as such blending techniques become more common and consumers have difficulty distinguishing between messages designed to inform and those designed to persuade, the credibility of both advertising and news declines.
stand-up shot
photographs of active people who appear to be news sources or reporters
e-commerce
the selling of goods and services online