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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
colonial times
- first np aimed at elite audience
- reporters were inexistent, they printed anything they could get their hands on
newspapers before the civil war
were openly partisan
penny press
- cost .01
- aimed at larger less educated
- relied more on ads
- began to hire reporters
Gazette of the United States
- established by Alexander to support him, federalists, and his policies
National Gazette
- established by Jefferson and put eidtor on State Dept. payroll
yellow journalism
- exaggerated news in early 90's aimed at exploiting scandalous stories
- helped push the war against Spain by reporting they had blow up the Maine battle ship
- Pulitzer and Randolph Hearst were contributors
magazines
- first national medium
- significant part of the Progressive movement - inspired modern day journalists
- exposed political corruption and predatory practices of large businesses in early 90's
radio
- first broadcast was in WWI
3 Important Characteristics of Radio
- Licensing System
- Advertising
- National Networks
Licensing System
- government regulations so no two stations broadcast on same frequency
- FCC (Federal Communications Commission)
- equal time rule - same pricing and treatment to parties
- enforced stations have opposing sides and no single partisanship
TV
- 1939 - first public appearance
- 1949 - 6%
- NOW - 99%
New Media
- Bush Senior/Clinton didn't have a site
- 2000 it was expected candidates have one
- still lags behind traditional media but will soon become too for mass campaigning
The Media
- tells people what to think about
- doesn't change people's opinion but let's them know how important an issue is
- foreign news aren't news to us until the news broadcasts it
The CNN Effect
- when something becomes "breaking news" and "top news" only when CNN broadcasts it
priming
- when depending on what news finds important the popularity of political individuals shifts
- Bush was popular during 9/11 but not so much after "weapons of mass destruction"
framing
- the way opinions can be altered based on how news emphasize of under-emphasize parts of an issue
media biases
- news = bad news
- news try to find a hero and a villain
- want new, exciting and unusual
- distorts the coverage for larger developments such as war and foreign affairs
professional bias
- journalists sometimes rely on outside sources for info especially government so there words may not be accurate
pack journalism
- when journalists attacking the same story come to an informal consensus on what is news worthy
- reporting the same thing as your opponent only because that's what you think will sell
prospects for change
- purpose of media is not to educate but to make impressions
campaign coverage
- criticism over lack of coverage over policy issues and more into little characteristics
- horse race coverage = campaign coverage
conventions nowadays
- less and less as important political events and are now treated as infomercials for the free TV time
presidential debates
- more people watch debates than vote
- can change undecideds into a party
media coverage of government
- presidential is given the lions leftovers treatment and is covered as a single individual
- there is less coverage over congress
- government is covered in the hero/villain/tragic events basis targeting specific individuals with little consideration towards departments and groups
emphasis on conflict
- media covers controversial comments by politicians
- this is why they'd rather not speak to journalists
agenda setting
- when media affect the issues and problems people think about
selection principle
- rule of thumb according to which stories with certain characteristics get chosen over others with those characteristics
selective exposure
- you choose what you want to expose yourself to
- if you're mainly Republican you will watch FOX News
selective attention
- when you can have a Republican and a Democrat hear the same debate yet both feel like their parties won the debate
can the government control the media?
- with press releases
- leaks
- granting access