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52 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Thomas A. Edison
light bulb, 186
power plants => electricity

age of invention, mass production
Economics of scale
low costs = sell products
cheaper product = more sales
Economics of scale required employees
blah
Assembly line production
workers performed same task for 23911042141 hours a day => injuries
Government
couldn't do anything
-probusiness attitude widespread
-could not reinforce because of corruption
Vertical/horizontal integration
Vertical integration: control of all facets of production

Horizontal: control of a business process
Holding company
Central organization that controlled delivery, etc.
Monopoly
= problems
-banks collapsed when businesses failed (they borrowed huge amounts)
-monopolies = powerful people
Sherman AntiTrust Act of 1890
Combination/conspiracy in trade outlawed
Supreme Court ruled
(1) owning 98% of market is OK
(2) trade unions was not

WTFF??
Andrew Carnegie (steel-man)
social Darwinism

Gospel of Wealth = result of capitalism, brought social responsibility

He donated generously to charity
Factories
hired women and children and immigrants because they were cheap
mass transportation
growing middle class could could commute to work
ethnic neighborhoods formed
black and Latinos were even lower
political bosses
corrupt people that helped poor.
catch: they had to vote a certain way. they ran these charity/political machines
Labor unions
formed against poor treatment of workers (government was wary of them)
Haymarket Square Riot
bomb went off during labor union
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
lead by Samuel Gompers
trade union - unions of people in the same trade
Settlement houses
community centers
Jane Addams
Founded Hull House for English lessons for immigrants, day care, playground, etc.

Won Nobel Peace Prize
Life improved for middle/wealthy people
More leisure time with riches
Popular novels and newspapers developed.

Joseph Pulitzer and William Hearst started "yellow journalism" which means stuff people actually want to read
THe South
Reconstruction made South more independant with textile mills

Still largely agricultural
Sharecropping
crop lien system

- poor in constant debt (borrowed to buy supplies, used crop as collateral)
Jim Crow laws
As federal gov left South
- Supreme Court said that blacks would seek protection from STATES
- Plessy vs. Ferguson = "Separate but equal"
Brooker T. Washington
founded Tuskegeee Institute for African Americans.
accomodationist - refused to press for immediate equal rights
Brooker T. Washington's speech
called "Atlanta Exposition"

WEB DuBois called it "The Atlantic Compromise"
The West
Ranching (growing livestock) and Mining (digging for minerals)

They laid claims to mines instead of digging it out

Expansion of land
Railroads
owned privately but were assisted by gov.

they had monopolies.
Buffalo
White people killed them, NA were flabbergasted because they need it
Railroad time
First standrad time measurement
Morrill Land Grant Act
gov gave money to agricultural colleges, realizing potential of the Great Plains area
Native Americans
Dawes Act - gave NA land in exchange for becoming "white"

Reservations didn't work
Reconstruction to the 1900 = Gilded Age
Shiny on top, corrupt underneath

Workers were exploited
Presidents were weak.
Railroad regulations
because they were price-gauging
Interstate Commerce Act
Created Interstate Commerce Commission to regulate railroad practices (ineffective - courts sided with businesses)
Pendelton Act
Civil service reform - Civil Service Commission to examine potential nominees

so some braindamaged person doensn't get a possition
*WOMEN'S SUFFRAGE
ASA (American Suffrage Association) - wanted to add women's suffrage to state constitutions
More supplies = cheaper prices
farmers wanted a more generous money supply

would cause inflation, and let them owe less

North banks = no
Silver
farmers wanted silver coins (mined in West)

Silver vs. Gold
Grange movement
Smart! Cooperatives

No money so they died.
Farmers' Alliances formed. = People's Party = Populist movement
The People's Party (Populist movement) and Socialist movement (by Eugene Debs)
Rising economics ended it.
Wizard of Oz = Populist
o_o

Dorothy = common man
silver shoes = silver standard
scarecrow = farmer
tin man = industrial worker
Bryan (democratic candidate) = lion
FOREIGN POLICY
DUM DUM DUM...
Growing market = new markets
nationalism

AMERICA was becoming a world economic power
William H. Sweard, Secretary of State
bought Alaska
Expansionism


Imperialism
bringing markets into foreign country

Controlling the countries
New Navy
US upgraded ships
Hawaii
Trade root to Asia, found Hawaii
American abuse of Hawaii
tariff-free access to American markets. Hawaiians became dependent. Then, US imposed high tarrifs. White minority overthrew native gov and US annexed it. Japanese were furious.
Cuba revolted against Spain

US ship Maine blew up
McKinley declared war on Spain, and gained the Philippines, Puerto Rico, and the Guam
Philippines controversal
Passed in the Senate
McKinley wanted an open door policy for all western nations wanting to trade with Asia
Europeans not happy. They had those markets because of colonies.

US helped Europeans surpress Asian rebels; they grew more open to the idea.