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183 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
what are the lymphatic systems functions?
a.)returns interstitial fluid and small amount of protien to circulatory system.
b.)Transports fats from GI tract
C. Protection against invasion
Lymph drains into?
venous system
Is red bone marrow a primary or secondary lymphatic organ?
Is Thymus gland a secondary or primary lymphatic organ?
What does red bone marrow do?
Gives rise to b+t lymphocytes (B+T cells). B cells mature in bone marrow
What does Thymus gland do?
T cells mature here
are lymph nodes a secondary or primary lymphatic organ?
what do lymph nodes do?
filter foreign substances from lymph.
What do lymph nodes have?
the spleen is a secondary lymphatic organ that?
has macrophages & lymphocytes
lymphatic nodules are in?
tonsils, appendix, etc.
what is nonspecific Resistance to disease?
Mechanisms do not distinguish one infectious agent from another
The skin has oil that?
inhibits growth of microorganisms
The mucous membrane does what?
line cavities that open to outside of body
what places does the mucous membrane line
Line GI tract, respiratory, urinary, reproduction
tears, saliva,perspiration and gastric juice have
lysozyme- enzyme that attacks all walls of bacteria
what are interferons?
A protein that has antiviral or immune regulatory functions. secreted by virus-infected cells, help nearby cells resist viral infection
what are the steps that interferons are involved in?
virus contacts cell> cell produces interferon> cant save cell but diffuses to neighboring cell> prevents virus from reproducing
what is the complement system?
-more than 30 normally inactive proteins in blood plasma and on cell membranes.
-when activated, promote phagocytosis, destroy membrane of foreign cell, stimulate histamine release.
natural killer (NK) cells are in?
spleen, lymph nodes, bone marrow & blood
what are natural killer (NK) cells and what do they do?
A type of white blood cell that can kill tumor cells and virus-infected cells; an important component of innate immunity. release perforina granzymes make cell die
phagocytes are?
certain types of white blood cells that ingest invading microorganisms.
neutrophils are?
The most abundant type of white blood cell. Neutrophils are phagocytic and tend to self–destruct as they destroy foreign invaders, limiting their life span to a few days.
macrophages are?
A phagocytic cell present in many tissues that functions in innate immunity by destroying microbes and in acquired immunity as an antigen-presenting cell. Some fixed in organs wandering.
what is inflammatory response?
A localized innate immune defense triggered by physical injury or infection of tissue in which changes to nearby small blood vessels enhance the infiltration of white blood cells, antimicrobial proteins, and clotting elements that aid in tissue repair and destruction of invading pathogens; may also involve systemic effects such as fever and increased production of white blood cells.
Fever can occur due to?
toxins from pathogens or wbc's releasing pyrogen's.
In inflammatory response Tissue injury is followed by?
release of histamine and other chemicals
what does fever do?
inhibits growth of many microorganisms
A foriegn invader is?
bacterium,protist,virus,blood cells from another person, transplanted tissue.
what is an antigen?
chemical substance that body recognizes as foriegn (non-self. Generally: outer components of invader (proteins,polysaccharide)could be entire microbe " " toxin
Stem cells of bone marrow give rise to?
RBC's, WBC's, B lymphocytes (B cells),T lymphocytes (t-cells).
There are millions of different antigens, and therefor millions of different types of_
B&T cells.
Both B and T cells migrate to?
lymphatic tissue
B and T cells have_____for specific portions of antigens
antigen receptors
Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC)is?
A family of genes that encode a large set of cell surface proteins called MHC molecules. Class I and class II MHC molecules function in antigen presentation to T cells. Foreign MHC molecules on transplanted tissue can trigger T cell responses that may lead to rejection of the transplant.
MHC-I is present on?
surface of every cell except RBC's.
MHC-II is present on?
certain cells, including antigen - presenting cells (APC's)
antibody has receptor proteins on surface that?
bind to antigen like lock and key.
the 5 classes of antibodies are?
IgG is?
most abundant in plasma, tissue fluids
IgA is in?
exocrine gland secretions, sweat,tears,saliva,mucus,milk
IgM is?
1st to be secreted by plasma cells- indicates recent invasion
IgD is?
on surfaces of B cells;activates them.
IgE is?
< 0.1% on most cells +basophils Involved in allergic reactions
antigen presenting cells include?
macrophages,B cells
what are antigen-presenting cells?
APC phagocytizes exogenous antigen. Splits it into fragments+combines it w/its own mhc-II molecules. Inserts this antigen-mhc complex into its plasma membrane, "displaying" it. Alerts immune system that something is wrong
cell mediated immunity works on?
micro organisms that have infected cells and on foreign tissue transplants.
what are the steps in cell mediated immunity?
1. foreign antigen-MHC complex is presented to T cells.
2. T cell binds specifically to complex.
Major histocompatiblility complex is integral membrane glycoprotiens unique to?
only identical twins have same?
mhc glycoprotiens
what do antibodies do?
binds to a particular antigen and marks it for elimination
one type of sensitized T cell proliferates into effector T cells (cytotoxic T cells);another type proliferates into?
helper T-cells
Helper T cells activate?
T&B cells and NK cells
Antibody-mediated(humoral) immunity works on?
antigens present in body fluids
what are the steps involved in antibody mediated humoral immunity?
1. B cell binds specifically to antigen
2. B cell multiplies
3.Some B cells become plasma cells (effector cells)
4. plasma cells secrete antibodies
5. Antibodies travel through circulation and lymph
6. antibodies bind specifically to antigen
Once antigen antibody complex is formed it can?
-neutralize toxic chemicals
-cause invading cells to clump
-inactivate pathogens
Cytotoxic T cells do what?
-release perforins
-release granzyme(proteolytic enzymes)
upon first exposure, memory cells are also produced from B&T cells, along with?
effector cells
effector cells may last?
a few days or months
memory cells may last?
a lifetime
Upon second exposure, memory cells give rise to?
more effector cells
second exposure leads to?
faster more effective response?
what is naturally acquired active immunity?
antigens enter body naturally(flu)
artificially acquired active immunity?
antigens enter body artificially(shot-vaccine)-killed/weakened form of virus or toxin thats been chemically altered
what is naturally aquired passive immunity?
antibodies acquired by crossing placenta or in breast milk?
body is stimulated by antigens + produces its own?
what is artificially acquired passive immunity?
shot of antibodies given to traveler give temporary immunity (lasts weeks or months)
-because persons own immune system has not been stimulated by antigen
tumor antigens may be?
displayed by cancer cells abnormal
________ recognize tumer antigens as abnormal and try to destroy them
cytotoxic T-cells, macrophages & NK cellscytotoxic T cells,macrophages & NK cells
what is Rh factor
A protein antigen on the surface of red blood cells designated Rh-positive. If an Rh-negative mother is exposed to blood from an Rh-positive fetus, she produces anti-Rh antibodies of the IgG class.
Rh treatment?
inject mom w/anti-Rh antibodies as a precaution>they destroy fetal Rh+ cells in her before she develops immunological memory for Rh antigen.
mHC unique to individuals can cause
Graft rejection
cyclosporine does what?
suppreses immunity but leaves recepient vulnerable to infection.
what is auto immune disease?
immune system attacks ones own body cells
examples of auto immune diseases are?
M.S. and R.A
allergen causes?
inflammatory response>histamine release>dilation+leakiness of blood vessels.
immunodefieciency disorders are?
when the immune system is suppressed by cancer, chemotherapy,diseases, human immunodeficiency virus.
Aids stands for?
acquired immune deficiency syndrome
Aids caused by
Aids attacks/kills what?
T cells and macrophages
Anaphylaxis is?
Severe reaction>b.p. can decrease can use shot of epinephrine to counter.
some innate defenses in invertebrates are?
-Exoskeleton of insects
-hemolymph has hemocytes
what animals have an open circulatory system?
arthropods,gastropods, bivalves
body fluid in an open circulatory system is called?
heart pumps hemolymph into?
ostia are pores in arthropods that allow hemolymph to?
come back to heart
what animals have a closed circulatory system?
annelids, cephalopods, vertebrates
in closed circulatory system 1 or 2____recieve blood and 1 or 2 _________ pump blood
atria, ventricals
steps in cardiovascular system are?
out>arteries>arterioles>capillaries where gas exchange occurs>venules>veins>heart
Fish have a ___chambered heart?

sidenote- 1 atria,1 ventricle
Amphibians have a __chambered heart
in double circulation blood is pumped a second time after it?
loses pressure in capillary beds
in amphibians most O2 blood is sent into systemic circuit and most de oxygenated blood into
pulmonary circuit
Reptiles have a __ chambered heart

2 atria one ventricle
in reptiles the ventricle is partially divided by a

crocodiles have complete septum
Birds and mammals have a __chambered heart

2 atria 2 ventricles
In birds and mammals the O2 rich blood is_____
the O2 poor blood
seperated from
the heart cycle involves?
systole- contraction
1. the right AV valve is the__
2.the left AV valve is the__
1. tricuspid valve
2. bicuspid
Atrioventricular valves anchored by
fibers that prevent them from turning inside out
semilunar valves are at?
exits of heart
pulmonary valve leaves?
right ventricle
aortic valve does what?
left valves open and close in response to pressure changes in heart
describe how heart sounds are caused?
lub-closure of AV valves
dup-" "semilunar valves
cardiac output is measured by?
multiplying stroke volume by Heart rate
sinoatrial node is?
pacemaker in right atrium
makes atria contract
Purkinje fibers do what?
makes ventricles contract
what are the three layers of the wall of artery or vein?
tunica interna
tunica media
tunica externa
the capillary wall is a single layer of?
precapillary sphincters do what?
are at the beginning of capillary controls blood flow
Blood pressure-determined in part by?
cardiac output
peripheral resistance
filariasis is?
parasitic infection
what is the tunica interna made of?
inner endothelium, simple squamous epithelium
what is the tunica media made of?
smooth muscle & elastic fibers
what is the tunica externa made of?
connective tissue
filariasis is?
parasitic infection
plasma is made up of?
plasma protiens
respiratory gases
erythrocytes are
-form in red bone marrow-biconcave disk
-flat shape, small size>flexible contain hemoglobin
Granular leukocytes do what?
phagocytes- eat bacteria and cellular debris
neutrophils love?
neutral stain
basophils do what?
release histamine+heparin

in allergic reactions +
parasitic infection

monocytes do what?
migrate into tissues + differentiate into macrophages
lymphocytes do what?
fight infection
thrombus does what
-adheres to injured vessels and releases clotting factors
-fibrin (forms threads of clot)
an embolus is a?
moving clot
artherosclerosis is?
hardening of arteries
LDL's are___cholesterol
HDL's are___ cholesterol
Cells are close to the external environment for gas exchange in?
sponges, cnidarians and flatworms
skin is involved in respiratory system in what animals?
earthworms, some amphibians
which animals have gills?
sea stars, most molluscs crustaceans,fishes and some amphibians
fish ventilate gills via movements of?
jaws and operculum
____________ enhances oxygen transfer to blood in fishes
countercurrent exchange
in emphysema Alviolar walls?
Alveolar fluid contains surfactant which?
decreases attractive forces among h20 molecules

if deficient respirator distress syndrome
Negative pressure breathing in?
Sensations are?
action potentials along sensory nerves. interpreted by brain as perception
a sensory adaptation is?
decrease in sensitivity during continued stimuli
what do Pacinian corpuscles do?
respond to deep pressure
what do meissners corpuscles and merkel discs do?
respond to discriminative touch
what do hair root plexuses do?
respond to light touch
the mechanoreceptor hair cells are in?
vertebrate ear,lateral line system,statocysts of arthropods
what do Chemo receptors do?
respond to solute concentration or specific molecules.
what do photoreceptors do?
detect light
What do infrared receptors do?
detect heat?
what do electroreceptors do?
locate prey that disturb electric currents the fish discharges
Thermoreceptors are?
-thermostat in hypothalamus
-free nerve endings for heat,cold
different kinds of Pain Receptors respond to?
excess heat,pressure,chemicals
What does an Eye cup do?
detect light both intensity & direction
Compound eye contains ommatidia each ommatidium has its own?
cornea and lens
Single lens eye is in which animals?
many invertebrates, spiders,octupus,squid
Fibrous tunic is composed of?
sclera and cornea
Vascular tunic is composed of?
iris and ciliary muscle
what does iris do?
constricts or dilates pupil
what does ciliary muscle do?
changes shape of lens, to focus light on the retina?
Nervous tunic is composed of?
optic nerve
what are photoreceptors?
rods + cones
what is optic nerve?
where it exits=blind spot No photoreceptors here
rhodopsin is in?
retinal is?
a dirivative of vitamin A
opsin is?
a protien
photopsins in?
color blindness is due to?
absense or deficiency of one or more cone photopigments
Axons of ganglion cells form?
optic nerve
what is optic chiasma?
optic nerves meet at optic chiasma at base of cerebral cortex. Fibers from medial retina progject of
external ear is composed of?
-external auditory canal(meatus
-tympanic membrane
middle ear is composed of?
-eustachian tube
-auditory ausicles
what does eustachian tube do?
-equalizes pressure on either side of tympanic membrane
stapes contacts?
oval window
inner ear is composed of?
semicircular canals,vestibule & cochlea
each region of basilar membrane most affected by
a particular frequency?
high frequency is at?
proximal end
low frequency at?
distal end
Perception of loudness happens when?
greater vibration of fluid> greater distortion of hair cells> more action potentials per second
Saccule and utricle?
detect static head position(tilt, linear acceleration)
Semicircular canals respond to?
rotation of head
hair cells send info to brain via?
vistibular fibers of cranial nerve VIII.
tastes buds are on?
tongue, pharynx,larynx, soft palate
frogs have what type of pressure breathing?
positive pressure breathing
respiratory system of medulla oblongata does what?
controls breathing
Hemocyanin is a?
respiratory pigment. Has copper in plasma colors blood blue
peripheral chemoreceptors are sensitive to?
increases in Pco2+increases in h+ concentration+ decreased P02