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120 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
The ___ ___ is both the transport system and barracks of your immune system.
lymphatic system
a second circulatory system parallel to the cardiovascular system.
lymphatic system
The lymphatic system has the following four functions:
• Recycling fluids lost from the cardiovascular system
• Transporting pathogens to the lymph nodes where they can be destroyed
• Storing and maturing some types of white blood cells
• Absorbing glycerol and fatty acids from food
Given that the lymphatic system is intimately connected to the function of the cardiovascular system, it should come as no surprise that the smallest pipes of the lymphatic system, called ___ ___, run parallel to blood capillaries.
lymph capillaries
structurally similar to blood capillaries, but unlike blood capillaries, ___ ___ are open ended.
lymph capillaries
Once interstitial fluid enters the lymph capillaries, it is known as ___ ___, or simply ___.
lymphatic fluid

lymph
The primary component of lymph is ___.
water
Several lymph capillary networks empty into ___ ___, which are structurally similar to veins.
lymphatic vessels
Larger lymphatic vessels empty into ___ ___.
lymph nodes
Ranging in size from a pin head to an olive, and existing either individually or in groups, the lymph nodes can be thought of as ___ strategically placed all along the pathways or vessels of the lymphatic system.
filters
___ ___ carries digested food, oxygen, and hormones to cells, and then carries waste back to capillaries for excretion.
Lymphatic fluid
Inside the nodes are sections of lymphatic tissue containing white blood cells known as ___.
lymphocytes
The lymphatic tissue is surrounded by lymphatic ___ filled with lymph fluid.
sinuses
masses of lymphocyte-producing lymphatic tissue located in the rear of the pharynx, or throat.
Tonsils
Lymphatic vessels exiting lymph nodes empty into one of several ___ ___. These trunks, named for their location, are the lumbar, intestinal, intercostal, bronchomediastinal, subclavian, and jugular.
lymphatic trunks
The lumbar, intestinal, and intercostal trunks all empty into the , which is the largest lymph vessel.
thoracic duct
The bronchomediastinal, subclavian, and jugular trunks empty into the ___ lymphatic ducta smaller duct within the right thorax that empties into the right subclavian vein
right
The symptoms of ___ include sore throat, difficulty swallowing, swollen tonsils, fever, upper respiratory symptoms, swollen lymph glands, visible coating or spots on the tonsils, and even upset stomach.
tonsillitis
___ tonsillitis is generally characterized by a low-grade fever and the presence of upper respiratory symptoms resembling the common cold.
Viral
___ tonsillitis, generally caused by infection with Streptococcus bacteria (which also causes strep throat), is characterized by higher fever and lack of upper respiratory cold-like symptoms.
Bacterial
Today ___ are performed only if the tonsillitis has become chronic or the tonsils are so enlarged that they obstruct the patient's airway.
tonsillectomies
there are two larger collections of lymphatic tissue, known as lymph organs. These lymph organs are the ___ and the ___.
thymus

spleen
a spongy sac-like mass of lymphatic tissue in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen.
spleen
One of the functions of the ___ is to remove and destroy old, damaged, or fragile red blood cells.
spleen
The ___ is a soft organ located between the aortic arch and the sternum
thymus
The thymus produces lymphocytes that mature into a type of white blood cell called a ___ ___.
T lymphocyte
a disorder of the lymphatic system in which lymph nodes swell.
Lymphadenitis
Initial symptoms of lymphadenitis include swelling of ___ ___ due to fluid buildup and increased production of white blood cells.
lymph nodes
Mononucleosis is a ___ infection that typically affects children and young adults.
viral
Caused by the Epstein-Barr virus, ___ symptoms are usually milder in younger children than they are in teens and young adults.
mononucleosis
often referred to as the "kissing disease" because the virus can be transmitted through oral contact and exchange of saliva.
Mononucleosis
___ ___ or ___ ___, is a rare cancer that affects the lymphatic system. Early symptoms include swollen lymph nodes, unexplained fevers, night sweats, and fatigue.
Hodgkin's disease, or Hodgkin's lymphoma
Cancer is staged and prognosis is determined by the amount of ___ (spread), type of tumor, and lymph node involvement.
metastasis
Once the cancerous cells make their way from their point of origin into ___ ___, and if the lymphocytes in the lymph nodes do not overpower the tumor cells, cancer cells can easily move around the body, invading many different areas simultaneously.
lymphatic capillaries
Though most types of cancer have specific staging criteria, cancer stages generally follow this pattern:
• Stage 1, no spread from origin
• Stage 2, spread to nearby tissues
• Stage 3, spread to nearby lymph nodes
• Stage 4, spread to distant tissues and organs
Stage 4 cancers are often ___.
terminal
If the lymphatic system can be considered a transport and storage system for the body's defense systems, then the components of the ___ ___ are the weapons and the actual troops.
immune system
cells have molecules on the outer surface of their membranes to distinguish whether they are friend or foe. These molecules are called ___.
antigens
The presence of these unique markers or antigens allows the immune system to distinguish between cells that are naturally yours and cells that are not. This ability, called ___ ___and ___ ___, is at the heart of immune system function.
self-recognition and non-self recognition
proteins that bind to antigens, eventually leading to their destruction.
antibodies
___ are called into action when a foreign antigen invades the body.
Antibodies
The immune system defends the body on two fronts: by ___ immunity and ___ immunity.
innate

adaptive
___ (natural) immunity is the first line of defense against invasion.
Innate
___ immunity, as the name suggests, is the body's inborn ability to fight infection.
Innate
innate immunity can only recognize that something is not ___ to the body; it can't identify the invaders.
native
Innate immunity is backed up by a platoon of mechanisms that specifically target invaders, can remember invaders from previous encounters (and there¬ fore prepare for future invasions), and can improve responses with experience. These mechanisms are known as ___ ___ or ___ ___,
adaptive immunity, or acquired immunity
your body has many ___ located in the places where invaders are most likely to gain entrance.
barriers
___ barriers include skin and the mucous membranes of the eyes, digestive system, respiratory system, and reproductive system.
Physical
The fluids associated with physical barriers contain chemicals that act as ___ ___.
chemical barriers
___ barriers are contained in tears, saliva, urine, mucous secretions, and sweat.
chemical
If an invader has an opportunity to enter the body, white blood cells (___) are responsible for defending the body against invaders.
leukocytes
a cancer of the bone marrow and blood, characterized by the overproduction of white blood cells.
Leukemia
In ___ leukemia, blood stem cells divide out of control.
myelogenous
In ___ leukemia, lymphocytes are the culprit.
lymphocytic
In ___ leukemias, there is a rapid onset of symptoms caused by the overproduction of immature, nonfunctional cells.
acute
In ___ leukemias, symptoms develop slowly and patients may even be symptom-free in the early stages of the disease, because the white blood cells, though overproduced, are functional.
chronic
Chronic ___ leukemia is known to be caused by a particular chromosomal abnormality (the Philadelphia chromosome)
myelogenous
Symptoms of leukemia are caused by decreased ___ of white blood cells (if cells are immature) and decreased ___ of red blood cells and platelets, which are crowded out by the excessive numbers of white blood cells.
function

numbers
___ are proteins produced by damaged tissues and white blood cells that stimulate immune response in a variety of ways, including increasing inflammation, stimulating lymphocytes, and enhancing phagocytosis.
Cytokines
a cytokine produced by cells infected by a virus and binds to neighboring, uninfected cells and stimulates them to produce chemicals that may protect these cells from viruses.
Interferon
___ ___ ___ or (TNF), another cytokine, stimulates macrophages and also causes cell death in cancer cells.
Tumor necrosis factor
Many cytokines are types of molecules called ___ and are involved in nearly every aspect of innate and adaptive immunity..
interleukins
Complement ___ is a complex series of reactions that activate 20 proteins that are usually inactive in the blood unless activated by a pathogen invasion.
cascade
When these proteins are activated, they have a variety of effects, including ___ of bacterial cell membranes, stimulation of phagocytosis, attraction of white blood cells to the site of infection, clumping of cells with foreign antigens, and alteration of the structure of viruses.
lysis
"LYSIS"
to breakdown or destroy
wall off the infected area to prevent fur¬ ther spread and allow the battle to focus at this site. This process is called ___ and is an attempt to isolate the problem.
margination
inflammation that becomes systemic, spreading throughout the whole body. This type of inflammation, called ___, often causes blood pressure to plummet due to widespread vasodilation.
anaphylaxis
Some people who are allergic to insect stings, nuts, or shellfish may experience this
anaphylaxis
One of the cytokine targets in the brain is the ___, which is responsible for setting and maintaining body temperature.
hypothalamus
Under the stimulation of cytokines, the hypothalamus raises the body's ___ set point.
temperature
The presence of a foreign antigen is detected by ___.
neutrophils
Neutrophils ingest the ___ ___, destroying it, and release chemicals (cytokines, for example) that attract other white blood cells to the site of infection and stimulate inflammation.
foreign antigen
The release of cytokines and stimulation of inflammation attract ___ and ___ ___ (NK) cells to the infection site.
macrophages and natural killer
Macrophages destroy more infected cells by ___.
phagocytosis
NK cells use ___ to destroy infected cells.
chemicals
Fighting specific pathogens is the job of ___ immunity. This part of the immune system has memory, "learns" with experience, and recognizes specific pathogens.
adaptive
Like any professional firefighter, lymphocytes must be ___.
selected
During positive ___, lymphocytes that recognize and bind to antigens are allowed to survive.
selection
The destruction of self-recognizing lymphocytes is known as ___ selection.
negative
___ ___ occur when the immune system attacks some part of the body.
Autoimmune disorders
These are all examples of what type of disorders?
• Rheumatoid arthritis
• Multiple sclerosis
• Lupus erythematosis
• Type 1 diabetes
• Myasthenia gravis
• Graves' disease
• Addison's disease
autoimmune disorders
Most autoimmune disorders can be treated with ___ drugs, but treatment may not be spectacularly successful and side effects are often severe.
immunosuppressant
___ ___ (RA) is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks the synovial membrane of a patient's joints.
Rheumatoid arthritis
Drugs to treat RA include ___ ___ ___ ___ (DMARDs) such as injected gold, methotrexate (a cancer drug), or plaquinil (a malaria drug).
disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs
For patients who have used DMARDs unsuccessfully or for whom DMARDs have stopped working, there is a newer class of drugs called ___ ___ ___ (BRMs) that includes Humira, Enbrel, and Remicade.
biological response modifiers
In the past, ___ ___ ___ (NSAIDs) like ibuprofen and naproxen were initially prescribed for RA, but NSAIDs are ineffective in halting the progression of joint damage.
non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
___ ___ ___ (SLE) is an autoimmune disorder in which the immune system attacks a variety of structures in the body.
Systemic lupus erythematosis
While undifferentiated lymphocytes are produced in the bone marrow, some migrate to the thymus and are destined to become ___ cells. Others stay, develop, and mature in the bone marrow to become ___ cells.
T cells

B cells
undifferentiated lymphocytes must undergo a maturation process to become ___ — in otherwords, to grow up to be a specialized cell with a specialized function.
differentiated
It causes lymphocytes to circulate continuously in the bloodstream and activates the lymph system to combat the pathogen.
lymphocyte activation
Lymphocyte activation is the beginning of which type immunity.
adaptive
The activated lymphocytes must make thousands of copies of themselves in order to fight off the thousands of pathogens reproducing in the body. This reproduction of lymphocytes is called ___ ___.
lymphocyte proliferation
(AIDS) ___ ___ ___ ___ is an immune deficiency disorder caused by infection with the (HIV) ___ ___ ___.
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome

human immunodeficiency virus
HIV causes ___ directly killing helper T cells, by destroying lymph nodes through their chronic infection, and by decreasing the amount of immune-enhancing chemicals in the body.
AIDS
Some people who are infected with HIV remain asymptomatic. Others may have ___ ___ ___ (ARC) or full-blown AIDS.
AIDS-related complex
Patients with ___ catch infections that are virtually unknown in humans or become very ill from viruses, fungi, and bacteria that are typically mild in patients with normal immune systems.
AIDS
HIV is diagnosed by medical history and by a blood test that detects very low helper ___ cell count.
T cells
while innate immunity has been holding down the fort, ___ ___ ___ (ADCs), also known as Antigen Presenting Cells (APCs) have sent out a signal calling on the weapons of adaptive immunity, B cells and T cells.
Antigen Displaying Cells
___ cells are responsible for a type of adaptive immunity known as antibody mediated immunity.
B cells
B cells develop into ___ cells and ___ B cells.
plasma

memory
Plasma cells make ___ and release them into the bloodstream.
antibodies
Antibodies destroy pathogens using several methods. This response to the pathogen is called the ___ response.
primary
If the body is exposed to the same pathogen in the future, memory cells allow it to mount a much faster response to the invasion. This response is known as ___ response and is responsible for the ability of adaptive immunity to improve with experience
secondary
There are at least ___ types of T cells.
four
Helper ___ cells are responsible for activation of B and T cells.
T cells
___ T cells are responsible for a part of adaptive immune response known as cell-mediated immunity, so called because the cytotoxic T cells are directly responsible for the death of pathogens or pathogen-infected cells.
Cytotoxic
What are the four types of T cells?
helper T cells
cytotoxic T cells
regulatory T cells (formerly known as suppressor T cells)
memory T cells.
Cytotoxic T cells release a cytokine called ___, which causes infected cells to develop holes in their membranes and die.
perforin
___ ___ cells are the off-switch for the immune system.
Regulatory T cells
Like memory B cells, ___ ___ cells are responsible for secondary response, storing the recognition of the pathogen until the next encounter
memory T cells
___ active immunity is acquired in the course of daily life.
Natural
___ active immunity is acquired during vaccinations.
Artificial
Babies acquire ___ passive immunity to many pathogens via antibodies passed across the placenta or during breast feeding.
natural
___ passive immunity is acquired when antibodies from one person are injected into another to help fight infection.
Artificial
During a hypersensitivity reaction, more commonly known as an ___, the immune system mounts a hyperactive response to a foreign antigen, often treating a harmless antigen, like grass or mold or insect bite, as an invading pathogen.
allergy
NSAIDs relieve pain and inflammation by inhibiting a group of hormones called ____.
prostaglandins
A class of drugs prescribed to decrease the activity of an overactive immune system are ____ drugs.
anti-inflammatory
Severe decreased T cell production (and sometimes other cells) caused by a number of different genetic defects.
Severe combined immune deficiency (SCID)
Overreaction of the immune system to typically harmless antigens, such as mold, pollen, or animal fur.
Allergies
Skin and tears are examples of ___.
barriers