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224 Cards in this Set

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Albany Plan of Union
In 1754, representatives from seven colonies met in Albany, New York, and adopted the Albany PLan of Union, developped by Ben Franklin. The plan provided for an intercolonial government and a system for collecting taxes for the colonies' defense. his efforts were a failure.
The Seven Years' War
(1754-1763) French-Indian War.

-french and indians fought on same side.

-the war was the inevitable result of colonial expansion.

As English settlers moved into the Ohio Valley, the French tried to stop them by building fortified outposts at strategic entry spots.

=the french were trying to protect their profitable fur trade and their control of the region.

-A colonial contingent led by George WAshington attacked a French outpost and lost badly.

-In 1756 England officially declared war on France.

-When the war was over, England was the undisputed colonial power of the continent. The treaty gave england control of Canada and almost everything east of the mississippi valley.

-during the seven years war colonialists had first opportunity to come in contact with english soilders, didn't make good impressions
Pontiac's Uprising
when English won French-Indian war, that spelled bad news for insdians. Ottawa war cheif Pontiac rallied a group of tribes in the Ohio valley and attacked colonial outposts. In response, the British Government issued the Proclamation of 1763, forbidding settlement west of the rivers running throug the Appalachians. the proclamation came too late, the settlers were already there. it did agitate settlers however.
Proclamation of 1763
Came after Pontiac's Uprising, as a result of the French-Indian war. Pontiac attacks english outposts in ohio valley who now dominate the continent. As a result, english outlaw settlement in west, agitate settlers who are already there.
justification for the Sugar Act, Currency ACt and the Stamp ACt
ONe result of the Seven years war was that in finaning the war the British government had run up a hge debt. the new king, George III, and his prime minister, George Grenville, felt that the colonists should help pay that debt. After all, they reasoned, the colonies had been beneficiaries or the war; furthermore, their tax burden was relatively light compared to that of taxpayers in England.
The Sugar Act
The Sugar Act of 1764- established a number of new duties and whick also containted provisions aimed at deterring molasses smugglers. The Sugar Act differed from previous tariffs such as the Navigation Acts in one important way" it was explicitly designed to generate revenue for the British government. It was the first piece of legislation ever to do so.
THe Currency Act
forbade the colonies to issue paper money.
the sugar act, the currency act, and the proclomation of 1764
all pissed off the colonists in the 60s, but not enough for them to have an organized resistance.
The Stamp ACt
The Stamp act included a number of provocative elements. first, it was another tax specifically aimed at raising revenue, thus awakening the colonists to the likelihood that even more taxes coould follow. the stamp act demonstrated that the colonies tadition of self-taxation was surley being susurped, much to the dismay of many colonists. Second, it was a broad-based tax, covering all legal documents and licenses. Not only did it affect almost everyone, but it particularly affected a group that was literate, persuasive and argumentative- namely, lawyers. Third, the law established vice-admiralty courst to try violators, threreby removing jurisdiciton over such cases from the colonists.

Reaction to the stamp act bui;t on prrevious grievances and consqequently was more forceful than any protest preceding it.
James Otis
"The Rights of the British Colonies Asserted and Proved"\

made "no taxation without representation" arugment
virtual representation
british argued that the memebers of parialment represented all british subjects regardless of who elected them.
sons of liberty
as a result of the sugar act, protest groups formed all over the colonies
George Grenville
George III's Prime Minister who was responcible for the taxation (stamp, surgar, currency)
Declaratory Act
although Lord Rockingham (new prime minister after George III replaced Genville) repealed the stamp act, he declared that the crown had the right to tax and legislate for the colonies
Townshend Acts
containted several anatgonistic measures.

1. they taxed goods imported directly from Britain- the first such tax in the colonies. Mercantilism approved of duties on importats from other European nations but not on British imports.

2. some of the tax collected was set aside for the payment of tax collectors , meaning that colonial assemblies could no longer withhold government officials' wages in order to get their way.

3. the townshend acts created even more vice-admialty courts and several new government officies to enforce the Crown's will in the colonies.

4. they suspended the new York Legislature because it had refused to comply with a law requiring the colonists to supply British troops.

5. these acts insituted writs of assistance, licences that gave the British the power to search any place they suspected of smuggled goods.
the Boston Massacre
soldiers stationed (4,000) in boston (town of 16,000) and many confrontations result. a mob pelted a group of soldiers with rock-filled snowballs, the soldiers fired back and killed 5
committees of correspondence
established in 1772 to discuss enforcing of Townshend acts- gave colonists opportunity to see what the political sentiment was like
Boston Tea Party
Bristish Government gives East India Tea Company monopoly over tea, provided the government gets a tax on it. well the colonists were pissed cause they were getting taxed, so....Bosoton tea party
acts responding to the boston tea party
the coercive acts, or Intolerable acts...punitive, closed boston harbor to all but essential trade until tea was paid for. tightened control on mass government, required civilians to house british soldiers
Quebec Act
at the same time of intolerable acts:

1. granted greater liberties to Catholics
2. Extended the boundaries of the Quebex Territory, thus impeding westward expansion
First Continental Congress
all colonies except georgia sent representives to the congrs, convined late 1774. they wanted to nail dont why they were pissed, and then figure out how to address it
committees of observation
the 1st continental congress agreed that every town should set up a committe of observation to see that boycotts were upheld- these became de facto governments

in 1774 and 1775 the commitees of observation built up weapons stock piles, expanded governance
Battle of Concord
shot heard round the world- no one thought this little broup of farmers could take on the red-coats, they did.
Second Continental Congress
convened during the period right after the battles of Lexington and Conrcord. throughout the summer, the Congress prepared for war by establishing a Continental Army, printing money, creating government officess to surperivse policy. the Congress chose George Washington to lead the army because hewas both well-liked and a Southerner (thus bolstering support in a weak area for the rebels).
Common Sense
a pamphlet by an English printer named Thomas Paine.Paine not only advocated colonial independence, he also argued for the merits of republicanism over monarchy. the pamphlet was an even bigger success than that previous colonial rablle-rouse, James Otis's "The Rights of British Colines...."
Thomas Paine
wrote "Common Sense"`
Declaration of Independence
in June, the Congress was looing for a rousing statement of its ideals, and it commisioned Thomas Jefferson to write the Declaration of Independence.
Treaty of Paris
signed at the end of 1782, granted the United States independence and generous territorial rights.
Articles of Confederation
In 1777 the Continental Congress sent the Articles of Confederation, the first national constitution, to the colonies for ratification. the articles contained several major flaws, as the country would soon lear, For one, it did not give the national government the power to tax or to regulate trade. Furthermore, amendments to the articles required the unanimous consnet of all states. the Articles of Confederation were clearly more concerned with prohibiting the government from gaining too much power than with empowering it to function effectively.
Abigail Adams
wrote to her husband pleading the case of women's rights in the new government; she reminded john to "remember the ladies and be more generous and favorable to them than your ancestors."
Shays Rebellion
In 1787 an army of 1,500 farmers marched on Boston to protest a number of unfair policies, both economic and political. They were armed asnd very angry, and they gave the elite class the wake-up call that the revolution might not be over yet. Shays rebellion helped convince some that a stronger central government was necessary.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
The government under the articles was not totally without its successes, though. Its greatest achievements were the adoption of ordinances governming the sale of government land to settlers. Best known as is the Northwest Ordinance of 1787, which also contained a bill of rights ruaranteeing trial by jury, freedom of religion, and freedom from excessive punishment. It abolished slavery in the Northwest territories, and also set specific regulations concerning the conditions unfder which territories could apply for statehood.
The New Jersey Plan
called for modificaitons for the Articles of Confederation
The Virginia PLan
largley the brianchild of James Madison, called for an entirely new government based on the principle of checks and balances
took 4 months to write, most closley resembled the Virginia Plan. went into effect in 1789
3/5 Compromise
each slave counts as 3/5 of a person
opponents of the constituion
Anti-Federalists, were particularly appalled by the absense of a bill of rights. Their position rang true in many of the state legislatures where the constituion's fate lay, and some held out for the promise of the immediate addition of the Bill of Rightds upon ratification.
the supporters of the constituion
the Federalists, forcefully and persuasively argued in the Federalist papers, anonymously authored by James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay.
Bill of rights
added 1791
Washington's Presidency
cabinet selections: Thomas Jefferson, Secretary of State

Alexander Hamilton: Secretary of the Treasury

sparked Jefferson v. Hamilton
National Bank
the debate between Jefferson and Hamilton came to the forefront when Hamilton proposed a National Bank to help regulate and strengthen the economy.

both houses approved, eventually washington too
the debate between Jefferson and Hamilton over National bank
On one side wer the strict constuctionists, led by Jefferson and James Madison. They argued that the Constitution allowed Congress only those powers specifically granted to it or those "necessary and proper" to the execution of its enumerated powers....Hamilton took the opposin viewpoint, framing the broad constructionist position. He argued that the creation of a bank was an aimplied power of the government because the government already had explicit power to oin money, borrow money and collect taxes.
Hamilton's plan:
1. Claled for the federal government to assume the states' debts (further increasing the federal government's power over them) and to repay those debts by giving debt holders land on thewestern frontier. the plan clearly favorded Northern banks, many of which had bought up debt certificates at a small potion of their worth. Northern stares also had more ramining debte than Southern states, another reason why the plan drew acustations that Hamilton was helping the monied elite at the expense of the working classes. Hamilton was able to strike a political deal to get most of his plan implemented. His concession was a southern location for the nation's capital. In 1800 the capital was moved to Wash DC.
The faggy revolution (the French revoltion)
took place during the Washington administration, and it too caused considerable debate. Jefferson wanted to support the revolution and its republican ideals. Hamilton had aristocratic leanings and so dislike the rervolutionairies. when the english entered war with france, encouraged america to be neutral because they were still trading with england
Citizen Edmond Genet
visitedAMerica to seek its assistance, Washington declard the US intention to remain "friendly and impartial toward beliigerent powers." people who supported the french dude joined democratic-republican societies which would eventually become a party
Wiskey Rebellino
(washington accused the societies of starting this) started when western pennsylvania farmers resisted a new duty on whiskey. For months, armed rebels across Pennsylvania, Maryland and Virginia defied government efforts to collect the new tax. THe decisive federal action, though probably necessary, alienated many and began the lon demise of the Federalists as a political force.
Jay Treaty
in his second term washington wanted to establish good trade with England, so he sent John Jay to England to have a treaty. THe result was called the Jay Treaty- congress didn't like it, but passed it.
John Adams
a Federalist, as Washington's succesor. UNder the currect rules, the second-place candidate became vice president, so Adam's vice president was the Democratic-Republican Thomas Jefferson.

Adams, argumentative and elitist, was a difficult man to like. He was also a hands-off administrator, often allowing his political rival Alexander Hamilton to take charge.

Perhaps Adam's greatest achievement was avoding war with France.
XYZ Affaire
After the UNited States signed the Jay Treaty with Britain, France began seizing American ships on the open seas. Adams sent three diplomets to paris, where french officials demanded a huge bribe before they would allow negotiations even to begin. The diplomats returned home, and adams published their written report in the newspapers. Because he deleted the French Officials names and replaced them with the letters Z, Y and Z, the inciden.....As a result, popular sentiment did a compltete turn around; formerly pro-french, the public became vehemently anti-French to the point that a declaration of war seemed possible.
Alien and Sedition Accts
allowed the adams governemtn to forcibly expel foreigners and to jail newspaper editors for "scandalous and malicious writing" the acts were purley political, aimed at destroying the democratic-republicans, whomthe federalists held in deep contempt.
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
To gether with Madison, Jefferson dragted the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions, which argued that the states had the right to judge the constitutionallity of federal laws. The resolutions went on to exercise this authority they claimed, later referred to as NULLIFICATION
Election of 1800
Federalists split- two men run:
Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr.
Although Hamilton didn't want to he campained for Jefferson because he hated Burr. Later, Hamilton was killed by Burr in a legit dual.

The election was noteworthy for two reasons:
1. For the second time in as many elections, a president was saddled with a vice president he did not want. THat problem was remedied in 1804 with the TWELFTH AMENDMENT
2. In America's first transfer of power, from Federalists to the Demoncratic-Republicans- no violence occured. called the "blooddless revolution."
the "Bloodless Revolution"
election of 1800, because it was the first major change of power without bloodshed (federalists - democratic-republicans)
Twelfth Amendment
Said that a vice president is attached to president as a ticket, instead of runner-up to president
the first "midnight appointments"
as Adams left power after the 1800 election, he filled as many government offices as possible with his guys.

Jefferson refused to recognize these appointments.
Jefferson replaced as many as he could.
Jefferson's first term
- jefferson works with albert hallatin to reduce national debt
-during his presidency, Marbury v. Madison established Judicial Review
-Louisiana Purchase
-Lewis and Clark
Marbury v. Madison
Marbury- one of Adam's midnight appointments
Madison- Secretary of State

establishes Judicial Review
John Marshal
Cheif Justice in Marbury v. Madison
Lousisian Purchase
When SPain gave New Orleans to French in 1802, the government realized that a potentially troublesome sitution was developing.....Jefferson sends James Monroe to France and buys New Orleans for $2 mill
Lewis and Clark
sent by Jeffersons
Election 1804
Jefferson wins in landslide
the lead up to the war of 1812
French and English fighting, cutting off trade routes for each other.

Both are pestering Americans- English begin impressing American seamen (making them enlist).

Jefferson can't react millitarily, so he gets embargo act
Embargo Act of 1807
the law basically shut down America's import and export business, with disastrous economic results. New England's economy collapsed, and smuggling became widespead.

In end, jefferson decided not to run again
Election 1808
jefferson endorses JAMES MADISON

Monroe defeats the ever weakening Federalists handily
War of 1812
Madison reopens American trade for sake of economy, but says that if either France of England will stop attacking American trade, he will stop trading with the other. France jumped first, and England stepped up attacks.

ENglands attacks encouraged War Hawks back home

Madison held out, but in 1812 he had to declare war

1. Once again, native americans allign themselves with British
War Hawks
During Monroe's presidency, as English stepped up attacks on American trade, SOuthern War Hawks- including Henry Clay and John Calhoun.
indian who united indians with brisitsh durin war of 1812 to stop American expansion
2. war went badly for Americans- British captured and burnt White House
3. Federalists met in Hartford Convention to consider secession
American Manufacturing in war
American manufacturing was surred by the War of 1812. Cut off from trade with Europe, the states became mroe self-sufficient by necessity. New England became America's manufacturing center during the war and after the war, America became less dependant on imports
National Road
during Madison's administration, worked on national road system from maryland to ohio.
American System
Madison administration's term for their public works, including the national road.

Henry CLay Lobbied for them very hard, almost called "Henry Clay's american system"
"Era of Good Feelings"
The Era during which the federalist party fell apart- Jeffersonian Presidents- Jefferson, Madison, Monroe
McCulloch v. Maryland
Chief Justice John Marshal ruled that states could not tax the National Bank
Panic of 1819
Nearly ending the Era of Good Feelings, the panic threw the Americna economy into turmoil. The panic followed a period of economic growth, inflaction and land speculation, all of which had destrabalized the economy. When the National Bank called in its loans, many borrowers couldn't repay them. The consequences included numberous mortgage ......nonetheless, no nationally organized political opposition resulted from the panic, and Monroe easily won reelection in 1820.
John Quincy Adams
Son of former president Jogn Adams, Quincy Adams negociated US borders as secretary of state to Monroe.
Monroe Doctrine
Worked on by Quincy Adams and MOnroe, the Monroe Doctrine was a policy of mutual noninterference. "You stay out of the WEst, Monroe told Europe, and we'll stay out of your squabbles. The Monroe Doctrine also claimed America's right to intervene anywhere in its own hemisphere, if Monroe's declaration, and so the Monroe Doctrince appeared to work. No one was afraid of American millitary.
Missouri Compromise
1820: Before the Missouri compromise, there was an 11 to 11 balance of free to slave states. Missouri however threatened the balance.
Missouri compromise:

1. admitted missouri as a slave state
2. carved off a piece of mass, called it Maine, and admitted Maine as a free state
3. established the southern border of Missouri as the northernmost point in which slavery would then be allowed in the western territories of the US. The compromise was the first in a series of measures forestalling the Civil war.

It also split the powerful Democratic-Republican coalition, ending its twenty-year control of national politics
Election of 1824
marked as major turning point in presidential elections. elections were more democratic- more people voting for electors instead of electors just voting

none of the four (Andrew Jackson, Adams, Clay or Crawford) won a majority, but Adrew Jackson won a popular majority, so it went to the house of representatives, wher e Clay supported Adams- Adams gets elected and makes Clary Secretary of State
demise of the caucus systemq
when John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, and Andrew Jackson challenged the nomination of William H. Crawford.
"corrupt bargain"
in election of 1824

none of the four (Andrew Jackson, Adams, Clay or Crawford) won a majority, but Adrew Jackson won a popular majority, so it went to the house of representatives, wher e Clay supported Adams- Adams gets elected and makes Clary Secretary of State
Qunicy Adam's Presidency
-impeded by a contrary congress (reember, more congressmen had initially supported Jackson than adams)

Jackson, now Adam's rival, and his supporters support states rights and attack adams
election of 1828
ushered in the begining of the modern political party system.

Jackson was pissed about 1824 and the corrupt bargain, so he put together a support netowrk to assure wide popular support; A coalition of state political organizations, newspaper publishers and other community leaders rallied around the campaign. THe group became the present-day Democratic party.
"spoils system"
trading jobs for political favors- first used in referance to jackson when he took office in 1828
Jacksonian democracy
Jacksonian democracy replaced Jeffersonian democracy. JEfferson had concieved of a nation governmed by middle- and upper-class educated property holders, in which the government would be only as large as necessary to provide an acceptable level of services. Jaclsonian democracy, on the other hand, was based on the universal manhood sufrage, meaning the extension of voting rights to all white males, even those who did not own property
universal manhood suffrage
basis of Jacksonian democracy, that all white males (property or no property) could vote.
Indian removal
Jackson's indian removal program, spurred by strong western expansionist support, Jackson forcibly evicted tribes.
The Removal Act of 1830
set in motion the events of the Trail of ATears, an 1938 forced march of Cherokees that resulted in thousands of deaths by sickness and starvation.
Second Bank of the United States
Jackson saw to it that the second back of the US failed by withdrawing federal funds and depositing them in state banks.
Tariff of 1828
AKA the "Tariff of Abominations" pased during the Adams administration, but it almost turned into a national crisis during Jackson's administration, when some states (mainly southern) considered nullifying the tarif in 1830. nulllification failed, but support for nullification was still there when the Tariff of 1832 came
Tariff of 1832
with states ready to nullfiy the Tariff of 1828, when the Tariff of 1832 came South Carolina nullfied it. eventually Jackson made compromise, but the idea of nullfication was not addressed
Jackson - defining characteristics
-distrust of big government and Northeastern power brokers
-fought the Second Bank of the US because he felt it protected Northeastern interests at the expense of the Est.
-He was also suspicious of paper money, preferring hard currency
Speciw Circular
Jackson's Specie Circular, which ended the policy of selling government land on credit (buyers now had to pay "hard cash") casued
-money shortage
-sharp decrease in the teasury
-overall economic hardship

Circular ended by congress in final days of jackson's term
Nat Turner's Rebellion
during Jackson's administration, the slave question got a lot worse: ex Nat Turner's Rebellion

Turner, a well-read preacher, had a vision, and he took his vision as a sign from God that a black liberation movement would succeed. AS a result, he rallied a gang that proceeded to kin and mutilate the corpses of sixty whites. IN retaliation, 200 slaves were executed, some with no connection at all the rebellion. Caused great discomfort for South, distrust between regions.
Black Codes
A reaction to Nat Turner's Rebeleion (remember that Nat Turner was white norther abolisionist crazy-man), many states, fearful of rebellion, pasted restrictive laws called black codes:
-prohibted blacks from congregating and learning to read.
The Election of 1836
Rise of the Whigs

Jackson's Democrats could not represent the interests of all its constituencies (NOrthern abolitionists, Southern plantation owners, WEstern pioneers)

Democrats split over issue of slavery

Jackson his second vice president, Democrat Martin Van Buren.

Van Buren won, but took up an imediate economic crisis. (Panic of 1837)
defined by their opposition of democrats
Panic of 1837
economic crisis that Van Buren took up as young president after Jackson

it guaranteed he would not be reelected
William Henry Garrison
In 1841, Garrison was the first Whig President, but he died a month into the presidency, so his vice president, John Tyler (a former democrat) took office. Tyler began championing states rights
John Tyler
took office when in 1841-2 William Henry Garrison got sick and died and so Tyler as VP took his position.

"president without a party"
Market economy
By making it possible to mass produce goods and transport them across the country, cheaply, a market economy began to develop (farmers and producers could stop growing for only subsitence, and sell a surplus)

a market economy is much better than a subsistence economy- focussing on one crop means cheaper/better turnout
"boom-and-bust cycles"
there were many of theses between 1819 and 1837 as the economy changed from a substinence to a market economy.
War of 1812: economic impact
forced America to become less dependant, develop world economy
Eli Whitney
invented cotton gin in 1793
Effect of Cotton gin
The cotton gin made it easier tand cheaper to use cotton textiles, and so there was more demand for cotton - forcing expansion of cotton industry, and there culture of cotton and therefore slavery.
interchangeable parts
whitney's second innocation. Whitney applied this to making rifles, which had at a time been produced by hand by one person. WHitney's idea was very well accepted
machine-tool industry
INterchangable parts gve birth to the marchine-tool industry, which produced specialized machines for such growing industries as textiles and trasportation.
assembly line production
whitney's innovations also helped promote assembly line production
power loom
The invention of the first power loom, in 1813, meant that textile manufacturers could produce both thread and finished fabric in their own factories, and so so quickly and efficiently. The resulting product was both high quality and inexpensive.
National Road
the construction of tghe nationla road from maryland to west virginia (eventuall Ohio) made travel easier.
Erire Canal
first biggy in transportation- 1825. Funded entirley by the state of New YOrk, the Erie Canal was seen as a victory by states' rights proponents as well.
canal era
1830s to 50s
new forms of transportation
-national road
-canals ex. erie canal
ex. by 1853 New York and Chicago were linked by railroad, as with Pittsburgh and Philadelphia
Development of farming between 1820 and 1860
percentage of crop that goes to market doubles
Western Expansion
1800- frontier lay east of the mississippi River
1830- all of this eastern territory had attained statehood, and the fronteir region consisted of much oof the louisiana purchase.
1830- settlers moved to Texas and Mexico
1840s- Pacific Northwest and California
1848- GOld Rush

American governemnt encouraged movement west
Second Great Awakening
early social reform movements grew out of the Second Greatr Awakening, which, like the frist, was a period of religious resurgene. The second great awakening began in the Northeast in the 1970s and then spread throughout the country, sparking an intense period of evangelism in the South and WEst. Numerous churches formed in poaces where previously there had been only occasional religous meetins. Few reform societies sprang up in the South and West, but in Northeast they were wide spread

reform societies caused- mormons
Temperance Societies
a reform group sparked by second great awakening
penitentiaries, asylums and orphanages
started by reform groups
women's rights movement
was also born in the mid-ninteenth century. The Seneca Falls COncention, held in 1848, in Seneca Falls, NY, was the first women's rights convention.
National Women's Suffrage Association
founded in 1869 by Susan B. ANthony
Susan B. Anthony
founded National Women's suffrage association.
Horace Mann
was instrumental in pushing forp ublic education and education reform in general.
Abolition Movement
before the 1830s, few whites fought for liberation of slaves. most just fought for gradual abolition, coupled with a movement to return blacks to Africa.

Second Great Awakening however helped convince people that Slavery was wrong

White abolitionists divided into two groups.Moderates and Immediatists
wanted immediate emancipation. most prominent among white immediatists was WIlliam Lloyd Garrison who published the newspaper called Liberator
William Lloyd Garrison
most prominient immediatist, published newspaper called Liberator.
gag rule
when debate over abolotion became too heated, congress passed gag rule
Fredrick Douglas
IN the 1840s, Fredrick Douglas began publishing his influential The NOrth Star. Douglass, an escaped slave, gained fame ass a gifted writer and eloquent advocate of freedom and equality.
The North Star
Fredrick Douglas' paper
Harriet Tubman
another prominent black abolotionist, who escaped slavery and then returned south repeatedly to assit more than 300 slaves escape via the underground railroud
Soujourner Truth
anouth back abolitionist, a charistmatic speaker who campainged for amncipation and women's rights.
What forced the slavery issue?
Abolistionists and westward expansion
Election of 1844
pitted James Polk, a democrat expansionist, against Whig leader Henry Clay. ONe of Polk's slogans, 54'40' or Fight, meant that America's NOrthwestern border should be extended/....deep into canadian territory.....Clay too favored expansionism....before he left Tyler annexed Texas and Mexico broke relations.....once he took office, Polk relealized he couldn't fight Mexico and Great Britian at the same time, so he agreed with Britian and the Oregon Treaty
Oregon Treaty
(under polk because he couldn't fight two battles) signed with Greeat Britain in 1846, allowed the United States to acquire peasfully what is now Oregon, Washington and parts of Idaho, Wyoming and MOntana. IT also established the current northern border of the region.
Mexican-AMerican War
Reasonably certain that war in the Northwest could be avoided, Polk concentrated on efforts to claim the Southwest from Mexico. He tried to buy the territory, and when that failed, he provoked Mexico until it attacked American troops. Polk then used that attack to argue for a declaration of war. Congress granted the delaration, and in 1846 the Mexican-American war began.

war did not have all of america's support because abolishtionists feared new states would be slave
Slave Power
the powerful, rich slave owners who were behind the Mexi-Ameican war, according to abolistionists
Free-Soil party
the failure of the wilmot priviso and the mexi-american war sparked the creation of the Free-soil party, a regional single-issue party devoled to the goals of the WIlmot Proviso.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
america wins mexi-ameican war, attained most of modern southwest- arizona, new mexio, california, nevada and utah
popular soveriengty
democrats idea....u know this
election 1848
whigs are being split by slavery, but manage to slip one last "im a gonna avoid slavery guy" in there- Zachary Taylor

Whigs disappear by 1856
Stephen Douglas and Compromise of 1850
Democrat Stephen Douglas and Whig Henry Clay hammered out what they thought to be a workable solution, known as the Compromise of 1850. The package was defeated in congress. but Douglass broke it down, and got the bill passed.

1. admitted california as a free state
2. enacted a stronger fugitive slave law
3. created territories of Utah and New MExico, but left the status of tslavery up to each territory to decide only when it came time for each to write its constituion, thus reinforcing a concept of popular sovereignty.

abolistionist considered the fugitive slave law immoral and coercive, popular sovereignty was vague
fugitive slave law
as part of the compromise of 1850, enacted that slaves had to be brought back-

abolistionists thought it was immoral and coercive.
Uncle Tom's Cabin
sentimental norvel written by Harriet Beecher Stow. 1852- got people rilled up.
Franklin Pierce
elected president- 1856?
Kansas-Nebraska Act of 1854
no new states would be admitted until 1858 (after cali) but Kansas and Nebraska were proving problematic. Stephen Douglas wanted to address these issues with Kansas-NEbraska Act of 1854

-established popular sovereignty
-repeaed Missouri Compromise

Northerneres thought the new law a betrayal, regarding it as further evidence ofSlave Power's domination of government. In response, they passed personal liberty laws
personal liberty laws
past in the north in response to the Kansas-Nebraska Act, required a trial by jury for all alleged fugitives and guarantteed them the right to a lawyer.

Southerners were pissed the north wouldn't accept.

Forced Northern wigs with Northern dems and free-soilers into the Republican party
were dedicated to keeping slavery out of the territoroes, but they championed a wider range of issues, including the further development of national roads, more liberal land distribution in the West, and increased protective tariffs. As a result, Republicans appeal to everyone....won a majority in 1854.
hated foreigners
John Brown
crazy man abolistionist in Bleeding Kansas who went an killed proslavers
Bleeding Kansas
pop sovereignty- big fightts between abolisio and proslave
Andrew Butler
whose uncle's, Preston Brooks, beat the shit out of Charles Sumner
James Buchanan
Democrats choose James Buchananfor 1856- wins against others

tried to maintain status quo as president
Dred Scott
declared himself freeman cause he went into free territory

scott lost
Roger Taney
cheif justice of Dred Scott- very blunt proslaverer
Harper's Ferry
John Brown strikes again (from Bleeding Kansas) in Harper's Ferry in 1859. tried to spark a slave revolt but failed
Freeport Doctrine
Democrat Sephen Douglas did his best to hold hios party together. He attempted to cobble together a concept of popular sovereignty that could get around the Taney decision (remember stephen douglas as a moderate, competed with Abe lincoln for illinois) His solution, called the Freeport Doctrine, was doomed to failure because any position that backed away from the Dre Scott decision would be apposed in the South. WHen it came time for the Democrats to choose their 1860 presidential canddidate, their convention split. Northern dems backed Douglas, Southerners backed John Breckinridge.
1860 election
Dems split
1. Stephen Douglas gets elected by northern dems
2. John Breckinridge gets elected by Southern dems
3. John bell elected by Constitutional Union party.
4. Abe lincoln by rebluicans

Lincoln won office, and just like he siad, demanded that all southern states be free

Lincoln banking on South's bluff

but three months before Lincoln's inauguration, South Carolina Seceded from the Union. Within months several states joined, under Jefferson Davis.

Confederacy attacked Fort Sumpteroooooooooooooooooooooooooop9o000000000000000
Jefferson Davis: what did he do?
confederate president.

realized the south had a great disadvantage. Davis took control of the Southern economy, imposing taxes and using revenues to spur industrial and urban growth; he took control of the railroads and commercial shipping; and he created a large government bureaucracy to oversee evonomic developments. Davis, in short, forced the South to compensate quickly for what it had lost when it cut itself off from Northern commerce. when Southerners opposed his moves, he declared martial law and suspended writs of habeaus corpus.
Davis had some success in modernizing, couldn't compete with north

rapid growth brought rapid inflation
confederate inflation
davis expanded the southern economy quickly, created inflection- pluged southerners into poverty.
in 1862 the confederacy imprelemnts military draft. this made the economy worse, because people couldn't tend to their farms.
class conflit in confederacy
confederates have class conflicts because wealthy could get out of going to war
northern boost in civil war
war goods, such as rifles and uniforms, boosted the northern economy. war brought about a boom period.

-north experienced inflation- not as bad though.
-republicans support business instead of unions
-expanded northern government
National Bank in civil war
Abe strengthened the bank- initiated the printing of national currency
national currency
in the civil war, abe initiated the printing of a national currency.
radical republicans
once the south left congress, the radical republicans were free to push licoln really hard for imidiate emmancipation- which he was hesitant about.
confiscation acts
the radicals in congress during the war introduced confiscation acts. the first (1861) gave the government the right to seize any slaves used for innsurrectionairy purposes." the second (1862) was much wider in scope, allowing the government to liberate any slave owned by someone who supported the rebellion, even if that support was limited to paying traxes ro the Confederate governemnt. The second confiscation act, in effect, gave the union the right to liberate all slave. This act had little effect, however, because Lincoln refused to enforce it.
Emancipation Proclamation
in September 1862, Lincoln issued the emancipation proc. Note that the emancipation proc did not free all the slaves. Instead, it stated that on January 1, 1863, the government would liberate all slaves residing in those states still in rebellion. The proc did not liberate the slaves in the border states such as MAryland, nor did it liberate slaves in Southern counties under the control of the Uino army. .....The proc also allowed OSuthern states to rejoin the Union without giving up slavery.
Thirteenth Amendment
Not until two years late, while cmapaigning for reelection, did Lincoln give his support for complete emancipation. Just before the Republican convention, Lincoln lobbied for a party platform that called for a contsitutitonal amendment prohibintg slavery; the result was the Thirteenth manerndment. Yet, even then, Lincoln remained equicocal. After his reelection, Lincoln considered allwoing defeated Southern states to reenter the Union and to vote on the Thirteenth Amendment.
Hampton Roads COnference
Lincoln brings in Southerners to discuss the 13th amendment with Southerners.
election 1864
many victories over the summer, putting lincoln in a much better position to be reelected.
Freedman's Bureau
established to help newly liberated blacks establish a place in postwar society. The Bureau helped with immediate problems of survival (food, housing) and developed social institutiotns, such as schools. In Arpil 1865, the confederate leaders surrendered. John Wilkes Booth assassinated Lincoln just weeks before the final surrender took place.
Johnson's Reconstruction
WithWith Licoln's assassination, Vice President Andrew Johnson assumed the presidency. Johnson, a Southern democrat, had opposed secession and strongly supported Lincoln during his tfirst term.....Johnson had liftend himself from pvoerty had held no great love for the South's elite planters, and at first he seemed intent on taking power away from the old aristocracy and giving it to the yeomen and small farmer.s
-called for the creation of provisional military governemnts to run the states until they were readmitted to the Union. It was required al Southern citizens to swear a Loyalty oath....but he pardoned them anyway.

when congress reconvined they were pissed to see conferdates in their congress

voted not to seat the new Southern delegations...started examing Johnson's Reconstruction plan
loyalty oath
as part of johnson's reconstruction plan, the north required southerners to make an oath of loyalty....barred southerners from taking the loath , thus prohibiting their participation in the new cgovernments. According to this plan, the provisional governements would hold state constitutional conventions, at which time the states would have to write new constitutions eliminating slavery and renouncing sucession. Johnson did not reuqire the states to enfranchise blacks.

The plan did not work, mostly because Joghnson pardoned many of the Southern elit who were supposed to have been exluded from the reunification process. After the states draftred new constitutions and elected new governments, former Confederate officials were again in positions of great pwoer.
black codes
passed in southern legislatures immediately after the war (under Johnson) to limit freedmen's rights to assemble and travel, and restrict their acces to public buidlings.
Radical Republicans and Johnson
Radical republicans wanted a reconstruction that punished theSouth for seceding, confisctgated land from the ruch and redistributed it among the poor, and extended democratic rights in the South. All Republicans agreed that Johnson's Reconstruction needed some modification, but Jognson frefusted to compromise. Instead, he declarded Reconstruction over and done with, vetoiing a compromise package that would have extended the life of the freedman's Bureau and enforced a uniform civil rights code in the South.
Congressional Reconstructoin
In response, the radicals drew up the plan that came to be known as Congressional reconstuction. Its first component was the Fourteeth Amendment to the Constitution. ALso passed the Military Reconstruction Act of 1867states to allow blacks to vote for convention delegtes. The act also required each state to ratify the Fourteenth Amendment and to send its new constittuion to congress for approval. Aware that Johnson would oppose the new Reconstruction, COngress then passed a number of laws designed to limit the president's power. As expected, Johnson did everything in his power to counteract the congressional plan. The conglict reachedits climax when the House Judiciary Comitte initiated impeachemnt proceedings
The Fourteenth Amendment
As part of Congressional Reconstruction, the fourteenth amendment:
1. prohibted states from depriving any citizen "life, liberty or property, without due process.
2. gave states the choice either to give freedmen the right to vote or to stop counting them among their voting population for the purpose of congressional apportionment
3. barred prominent Congederates from holding political office
4, excused the Confederacy's war debt.

The first two popints held the most importance. The first meant to override the effect of the black codes, while the second aimed to force states to either extend suffrage to black men or lose power in Congress.
Military Reconstruction Act of 1867
as party of congressional reconstruction, it imposed martial law on the South; it also called for new state constituttional conventions and forced the
impeachment proceedings
the conflict over reconstruction got worse when the house judiciary committee initiated impeachment proceedings against Johnson, ostensibly for violating the Tenure of Office ACt.

impeachment failed.
Ulysses S. Grant
new president after Johnson
Fifteenth Amendment
proposed in 1869, finally required states to enfranchise black men. Ironically, the Fifteenth Amendment passed only because SOuthern states were required to ratify it as a condition of reentry into the Union; a number of Northern states opposed the ammendment.
reconstruction's success
1. allowed all southern men to vote.
2. New southern governemnts created public schools and those social instituions such as orphanages popularized in the North during the reform movement of the 1830s. The new governments also stimulated industrial and rail development in the South through loans, grants and tax emeptions.
3. the fact that blacks were serving in Sourthen governemnts represented a huge step forward, given the semmingly insurmoutable restrictions placed on blacks only a few years earlier.
reconstruction's failure
allowed for a mean reaction- southerners hated high taxes, racist, hated northerners - kuklux klan
-did nothing to redistribute wealth cxxczxccxxcc
northerner in southern reconstruction
Liberal Republicans
Liberal republicans broke from support for Reconstruction because of corruption. their candidate, Horace Greeeley, did not defeat Grant, but their main gains were in congressoinal and state eletions. As a result, grant moved further away from the radical position and closer to concilation,.
Amnesty Act of 1872
pardoned many rebels, thus allowing them to renter public.

contributed to fialure of reconstruction
Panic of 1873
financial panic the drew attention away from reconstruction. ...
Rutherford B. Hayes
another republican, won by narrow majorty after grant---election showed that dems were comming back.
blacks didn't want to work for whites, but they would sharecrop.
When reconstruction ended, many blacks anticipated the fate that waited them in the South and left. These people, called "exodusters" picked up amd moved to the Midwest (especially Kansas) wheere they attempted to start afresh in new black communities.
THe machine age (1877-1900)
Thomas Edison
invented lightbulb after 1876
holding compaany
ideal vertical integration, from the standpoint of business, would include a central organization called a holding company that owed the controlling interst in the production of raw material, the means of transporting that meterial to a factory, the factoru itself, and the distibutino network for selling the product. the logical conclusion is a monopoly, complete control of an industry
Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890
The back-and-forth battle among the public, the government and the coutrs is best exemplified by the Sherman Antitrust ACt of 1890 (the back and forth betweeen rich corporate businessmen and public and courts)Public pressure led to the passage pf the law forbidding any "combination...or conspiracy in the restraint of trade." THe Supremem courty then ruled 1. that a company that controled 98 percent of the nation's sugar refining buiness did not violate the law, and that
2. the unions did.
Andrew Carnegi
rich industrialist, promoted SOcial Darwinism (in business, free competition means only the fit survive) and preached the Gospel of Wealth

was very generous with money in charities
SOcial Darwinism
Anndrew Carnegi- open capitolism means only the fittest survive
Gospel of Wealth
that the concentration of wealth among a few was the nautral and most efficient result of capitalism
political bosses
political bosses helped immigrants so that they could get their votes- did many things for them

-they were criminal
the last quater of the ninteenth century
rise of industry, rise of labor
-social darwinism
-female activism, charity
Haymarket Square Riot
During an 1886 labor demonstration in Chicago's Haymarket Square, a bomb went off, killing polic. Many blamed the incident on the influence of radicals within the union movement, although no one knew who set of the bomb.
American Federation of Labor
avoided larger political questions, concentrating instead on such "bread and butter" issues as higher wages and shorter days (in other words, some groups were extreme, AFL was moderate)excluded unskilled laborers
Samuel Gompers
leader of AFL
settlement houses
middle class women lived in settlement houses in poor neiborhoods to help out
Jane Addams
founded the Hull House in Chicago
popular novels and newspapers
the wealthy people did well in the end of the nineteethcentrury, everybody was reading the same books
Joseph Pulitzer
newspaper guy
William Randolph HEarst
newspaper guy
"yellow journalism"
pulitzer, hearst, understood the balue of bold, screaming headlines and lurid tales of scandal
crop lien system
The method by which poor southerners rented land was called the crop lien system; it was designed to keep the bpoor in constant debt.
Jim Crow Laws
Plessy V. Ferguson
"seperate but equal"
Booker T. Washington
civil rights activist, however he was a bit of an accommodationist
Morril Land Grant Act
NEw farm marchinery and access to mail (and mail-order retail) made life on the plans easier, but it was still lonley and difficult. The government, realizing the potential of the region as the nation's cheif agricultural center, passed the Morril lanad grant act to pprovide money for agricultural collges. Eventually, agricultural science became a huge industry in the US.
Gilden Age
MArk Twain dubbed the era between Reconstruction and 1900 the Gilded Age of politics.Gilded metals have a shiny, gold-like surface, but beneath lies a cheap base.
William McKinley
we reembmer McKinley but only because he was in business' hip pocket and because his asssassination made a president of THeodoere Roosevelt.
Interstate Commerce Act
to regulate unfair railroad practices
Pendleton Act
in response to charges of patronage in awarding government jobs; civil service reform. created the Covo; Servoce Cp,,osopm tp pversee exa,omatopms fpr [ptemtoa; gpverm,emt e,[;pees
Civil Service Commision
oversee examinations for potential government employees
The silver issue/the populist movement
populists wanted a more generous money supply, silver- (would increase inflation and take away from northern banks)

Northern banks wanted gold
Grange Movement
silver populists
Farmer's Alliance
silver populists
People's Party
silver populists- populist movement
Eugene V. Debs
led socialists (extreme populists) in 1890s
WIlliam Jennings Brian
populists back him against McKinley as silver guy, he lost

"cowardly lion"
William H. Seward
secretary of state under lincoln and johnson, engineered the purchase of Alaska and invoked the Monroe Doctrine to force FRance out of mexico
the name of the boat that blew up in havanna harbor during cuban revolution. in the ensuring war, AMerica got spanish out of Cuba and Phillipines.

us annex phillipines instead of granting them independence
Treaty of Paris
Spain gives America Phillipnes, Perto Rico, guam,gives Cuba independence