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1098 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
adenoma
Tumor of a gland.
adenitis
Inflammation of a gland.
arthritis
Inflammation of a joint.
biology
Study of life.
biopsy
Removal of living tissue and examination under a microscope.
carcinoma
Cancerous tumor.
cardiology
Study of the heart.
cephalic
Pertaining to the head.
cerebral
Pertaining to the brain.
incision
Process of cutting into. Scissors cut.
excision
Process of cutting out.
endocrine glands
Glands that secrete hormones within the body.
cystoscopy
Process of visual examination of the urinary bladder.
cytology
Study of cells.
dermatitis
Inflammation of the skin.
hypodermic
Pertaining to under the skin.
electrocardiogram
Record of the electricity in the heart.
electroencephalogram
Record of the electricity of the brain.
enteritis
Inflammation of the intestines.
erythrocyte
A red blood cell.
gastrectomy
Removal of the stomach.
gastrotomy
Incision of the stomach.
diagnosis
State of complete knowledge; information gathered about a patient's illness. (Dia-= complete; gnos/o = knowledge; -sis = state of)
prognosis
State of before knowledge; prediction about the outcome of an illness. An agnostic is a person who professes no (a-) knowledge of God.
gynecology
Study of females and female diseases.
hematology
Study of blood.
hematoma
Collection (mass) of blood.
hemoglobin
Blood protein found in red blood cells. Hemoglobin carries oxygen to the cells from the lungs and carbon dioxide away from cells to the lungs.
hepatitis
Inflammation of the liver.
iatrogenic
" Pertaining to being produced by treatment. A rash occurring after treatment with a drug, such as penicillin, is an iatrogenic condition. A related term, nosocomial, refers to any infection acquired in a hospital (nos/o means disease and -comial comes from the Greek ""I take care of""). "
leukocyte
White blood cell.
nephritis
Inflammaton of the kidney.
nephrology
Study of the kidney.
neurology
Study of nerves.
oncology
Study of tumors.
oncologist
Specialist in the study of tumors.
ophthalmoscope
"Instrument for visual examination of the eye. Proper pronunciation helps in the spelling of this term. The initial syllable is pronounced ""off"" and is spelled ""oph."" "
osteitis
Inflammation of bone.
osteoarthritis
Inflammation of bone and joints (actually degeneration of joint tissue).
pathology
Study of disease.
pathologist
"One who studies diseases, performs autopsies, and examines biopsy samples. "
pediatric
Pertaining to treatment of children.
psychology
Study of the mind.
psychiatrist
Specialist in the treatment of the mind.
radiology
Study of x-rays.
renal
"Pertaining to the kidney. Ren/o (Latin) is used with -al (Latin), and nephr/o (Greek) is used with -ic (Greek). "
rhinitis
Inflammation of the nose.
sarcoma
"Tumor of flesh tissue (cancerous tumor of connective tissues, such as bone, muscle, cartilage, fat). Sarcasm is an utterance intended to ""cut into the flesh"" and a sarcophagus is a box or container (Egyptian coffin) intended to ""swallow flesh."" Phag/o means to eat or swallow. "
resection
Process of cutting out; removal.
thrombocyte
A clotting cell.
urology
Study of the urinary tract.
cardiac
Pertaining to the heart.
neural
Pertaining to nerves.
arthralgia
Pain of a joint.
neuralgia
Nerve pain.
erythrocyte
Red blood cell.
nephrectomy
Removal (resection) of a kidney.
leukemia
Blood condition of white cells; malignant (cancerous) condition.
carcinogenic
"Pertaining to producing cancer. From the Greek ""gennao"" meaning ""I produce."" Other words to help remember -genic are gene and Genesis. "
pathogenic
Pertaining to producing disease.
iatrogenic
Pertaining to produced by treatment (physician).
electroencephalogram
Record of the electricity in the brain.
gastric
Pertaining to the stomach.
neurological
Pertaining to the study of nerves.
excision
Process of cutting out; removal.
gynecologist
Specialist in the study of females and female disorders.
cystitis
Inflammation of the urinary bladder.
endocrinology
Study of the endocrine glands.
hepatoma
Tumor (malignant) of the liver.
biopsy
Process of viewing life; removal of living tissue for microscopic examination.
nephrosis
Abnormal condition of the kidney.
leukocytosis
Abnormal condition (slight increase) of normal white blood cells.
enteropathy
Disease of the intestines.
adenopathy
Disease of glands.
endoscope
Instrument to visually examine within (the body).
endoscopy
Process of visually examining within (the body).
prognosis
State of before knowledge; prediction about the outcome of treatment.
osteotomy
Incision of a bone.
gastroenterology
Process of study of the stomach and intestines.
anemia
A decrease in erythrocytes or hemoglobin.
autopsy
"Self view-examination of a dead body, understand its function. "
diagnosis
State of complete knowledge; information gathered about a patient's illness.
endocrinologist
One who specializes in endocrine glands.
epigastric
Pertaining to above the stomach.
epidermis
Outer layer of skin; above the dermis layer.
excision
Process of cutting out; to resection.
exocrine glands
Glands that secrete chemicals to the outside of the body.
hyperglycemia
Condition of increased blood sugar.
hypogastric
Pertaining to below the stomach.
hypoglycemia
Condition of low blood sugar.
incision
Process of cutting into; to section.
pericardium
Structure (membrane) surrounding the heart.
prognosis
State of before knowledge-prediction about the outcome of a condition.
resection
"Removal; excision. From the Latin ""resecare"" meaning ""to cut back, trim or curtail."" Thus a resection is an operation wherein an organ is ""cut back"" or removed. "
retrocardiac
Pertaining to behind the heart.
subhepatic
Pertaining to below the liver.
transhepatic
Pertaining to across or through the liver.
abdominal
Pertaining to the abdomen.
adipose
Pertaining to fat.
anterior
Pertaining to the front.
anabolism
Process of casting up (building-up or synthesizing process in a cell).
cervical
Pertaining to the neck.
chondroma
Tumor of cartilage.
chondrosarcoma
Flesh tumor (malignant) of cartilage.
chromosomes
Color bodies; contain genetic material and are located in the nucleus of cell.
coccygeal
Pertaining to the tailbone.
craniotomy
Incision of the skull.
cytoplasm
Contents (formation) of the cell (apart from the nucleus and cell membrane).
distal
Pertaining to far (from the beginning of a structure).
dorsal
Pertaining to the back.
histology
Study of tissues.
iliac
Pertaining to the ilium.
inguinal
Pertaining to the groin.
karyotype
Picture (classification) of the nucleus (and its chromosomes).
lateral
Pertaining to the side.
lumbosacral
Pertaining to the lumbar and sacral regions.
medial
Pertaining to the middle.
nucleic
Pertaining to the nucleus.
pelvic
Pertaining to the hip bone.
posterior
" Pertaining to the back, behind."
proximal
Pertaining to near the beginning of a structure.
sacral
Pertaining to the sacrum (lower back).
sarcoma
Tumor of flesh tissue (malignant).
spinal
"Pertaining to the spine, backbone."
epithelial cell
Cell covering the surface of the skin and inner lining of body cavities and tubes.
thoracic
Pertaining to the chest.
thoracotomy
Incision of the chest.
tracheal
Pertaining to the windpipe.
umbilical
Pertaining to the navel.
ventral
Pertaining to the belly side of the body.
vertebral
Pertaining to vertebrae.
visceral
Pertaining to internal organs.
anabolic
Pertaining to casting up; building up substances (proteins) in the cell.
catabolism
Process of casting down; breaking down material in the cell to release energy.
epigastric
Pertaining to above the stomach.
hypochondriac regions
Pertaining to under the rib cartilages (area of the abdomen).
intervertebral
Pertaining to between the vertebrae.
metabolism
State of building up (anabolism) and breaking down (catabolism); processes in a cell.
arthralgia
Pain in a joint.
otalgia
Pain in the ear.
neuralgia
Pain of nerves.
myalgia
Pain of muscles.
rectocele
Hernia of the rectum.
cystocele
Hernia of the urinary bladder.
thoracocentesis
Surgical puncture to remove fluid from the chest (thoracentesis).
amniocentesis
Surgical puncture of the amnion.
abdominocentesis
Surgical puncture of the abdomen.
streptococcus
Berry-shaped (spheroidal) bacterium found in twisted chains.
staphylococci
Berry-shaped (spheroidal) bacteria in clusters.
erythrocyte
Red blood cell.
leukocyte
White blood cell.
thrombocyte
Clotting cell.
pleurodynia
Pain in the chest wall muscles that is aggravated by breathing (literally: pain of the pleura).
laryngectomy
Removal of the larynx.
mastectomy
Removal of a breast.
anemia
Decrease in erythrocytes or hemoglobin.
ischemia
To hold back blood from an area of the body.
carcinogenesis
Condition of producing cancer.
pathogenesis
Condition of producing disease.
angiogenesis
Formation of blood vessels.
carcinogenic
Pertaining to producing cancer.
osteogenic
Pertaining to produced within bone.
electroencephalogram
Record of the electricity in the brain.
myelogram
Record (x-ray) of the spinal cord.
mammogram
Record (x-ray) of the breast.
electroencephalograph
Instrument for recording the electricity in the brain.
electroencephalography
Process of recording the electricity in the brain.
angiography
Process of recording (x-ray) blood vessels.
bronchitis
Inflammation of the bronchi.
tonsillitis
Inflammation of the tonsils.
thrombophlebitis
Inflammation of a vein with clot formation.
ophthalmology
Study of the eye.
morphology
Study of shape or form.
hemolysis
Destruction of blood (breakdown of red blood cells with release of hemoglobin).
osteomalacia
Softening of bone.
chondromalacia
Softening of cartilage.
acromegaly
Enlargement of extremities.
splenomegaly
Enlargement of the spleen.
myoma
Tumor (benign) of muscle.
myosarcoma
Tumor (malignant) of muscle (a type of flesh tissue).
multiple myeloma
Tumor of bone marrow.
hematoma
Collection of blood (bruise).
biopsy
To view life; microscopic examination of living tissue.
necropsy
Visual examination of dead bodies; autopsy (most often used for animals).
necrosis
Condition of death (of cells).
hydronephrosis
Abnormal condition of water (found) in the kidney.
leukocytosis
Abnormal condition (slight increase in numbers) of normal white blood cells.
cardiomyopathy
Disease of heart muscle.
erythropenia
Deficiency of red blood cells.
neutropenia
Deficiency in neutrophils.
thrombocytopenia
Deficiency of clotting cells.
acrophobia
Fear of heights.
agoraphobia
"Fear of being in open, crowded spaces (marketplace). "
achondroplasia
No (improper) development of cartilage.
angioplasty
Surgical repair of blood vessels.
blepharoptosis
"Prolapse, sagging of an eyelid. "
nephroptosis
Prolapse of a kidney.
arteriosclerosis
Hardening of arteries.
laparoscope
Instrument to visually examine the abdomen.
laparoscopy
Process of visual examination of the abdomen.
metastasis
Beyond control; spreading of a cancerous tumor.
hemostasis
Stopping the flow of blood (naturally by clotting or artificially by compression).
colostomy
New opening of the colon (to the outside of the body).
tracheostomy
New opening of the windpipe (to the outside of the body).
hydrotherapy
Treatment with water.
chemotherapy
Treatment with drugs.
radiotherapy
Treatment with x-rays.
laparotomy
Incision into the abdomen.
phlebotomy
Incision of a vein.
hypertrophy
Excessive development.
atrophy
No development; wasting away of tissue.
radiographer
"One who records x-rays; radiologic technologist. A person who, under the supervision of a physician, operates radiologic equipment and assists radiologists. "
leukemia
Condition of increase in white cells (malignancy).
pneumonia
Condition (abnormal) of lungs.
nephrologist
Specialist in the study of the kidney.
arteriole
Small artery.
venule
Small vein.
pericardium
Structure surrounding the heart.
nephropathy
Disease of the kidney.
cardiac
Pertaining to the heart.
peritoneal
Pertaining to the peritoneum.
inguinal
Pertaining to the groin.
pleural
Pertaining to the pleura.
tonsillar
Pertaining to tonsils.
pulmonary
Pertaining to the lungs.
axillary
Pertaining to the armpit.
laryngeal
Pertaining to the voice box.
chronic
Long-term; over a long period of time.
pathological
Pertaining to the study of disease.
adenoids
"Resembling glands (lymphatic tissue in the throat, near the nose). "
adipose
Pertaining to fat.
mucous
Pertaining to mucus.
apnea
Not breathing.
anoxia
Without oxygen (decrease in tissues).
abnormal
Pertaining to away from the norm (rule); not regular.
abductor
One who (muscle which) leads away from the body. To abduct means to carry away by force; kidnap.
abductor
One who (muscle which) leads toward the body. To admit means to send toward or permit entrance.
adrenal glands
Endocrine glands located above (toward) the kidneys.
anabolism
Process of casting (building) up materials (proteins) within cells.
analysis
To separate (apart). Psychoanalysis is a psychiatric treatment that explores the mind. Urinalysis (urin/o + (an)alysis) is laboratory examination of urine to aid in diagnosis.
ante cibum
Before meals.
anteflexion
Bending forward.
antepartum
Before birth.
antisepsis
Condition against infection.
antibiotic
Pertaining to against life (germ life).
antigen
A substance (usually foreign) that stimulates the production of antibodies.
antibody
Protein substance made in the body to destroy foreign antigens.
antitoxin
A substance (antibody) produced in response to and capable of neutralizing a toxin (such as those causing diphtheria or tetanus). Antirenin contains antitoxin specific for an animal or insect venom.
autoimmune
Related to making antibodies (immune substances) against one's own cells and tissues.
bifurcation
Forking (branching) into two; as the trachea bifurcates into two individual tubes.
bilateral
Pertaining to two sides.
bradycardia
Condition of slow heart beat.
catabolism
Process of casting down materials (sugar) to release energy in cells.
congenital anomaly
Irregularity at birth.
connective
To tie (bind) together. A conference (fer-means to carry or bring) is where people gather together or meet.
contraindication
To point out against; as reasons why a drug should not be taken.
contralateral
Pertaining to the opposite side.
dehydration
Condition of lack of water.
diameter
To measure through; as the diameter of a circle.
diarrhea
To flow through; water is not properly absorbed through the walls of the colon.
dialysis
Complete separation; two types are hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis.
dyspnea
Difficult breathing.
dysplasia
"Abnormal (""bad"") development or formation. "
ectopic pregnancy
Pregnancy out of the normal place (usually in the fallopian tubes).
endocardium
Inner lining (membrane) of the heart.
endoscope
"Instrument to view within the body; gastroscope, bronchoscope, laparoscope. "
endotracheal
Pertaining to within the trachea.
epithelium
"Skin cell; literally, ""upon a nipple."" "
euphoria
"Good feeling, ""high."" A eulogy is a speech saying good things about a person after his/her death. "
euthyroid
Normal thyroid function.
exophthalmos
Eyeballs that protrude.
hemiglossectomy
Removal of half the tongue.
hyperglycemia
Increase in blood sugar.
hyperplasia
Condition of increased formation (increase in number of cells).
hypertrophy
Increase in development; increase in size of cells.
hypodermic
Pertaining to below the skin.
hypoglycemia
Decrease in blood sugar.
insomniac
Pertaining to inability to sleep.
incision
Process of cutting into; sectioning.
infracostal
Pertaining to below ribs.
intercostal
Pertaining to between the ribs.
intravenous
Pertaining to within a vein.
macrocephaly
Pertaining to an enlarged head. A congenital anomaly.
malignant
"Harmful, bad; cancerous condition. "
malaise
"Feeling of discomfort; ""bad feeling."" "
metacarpal bones
Five hand bones (beyond the wrist).
metamorphosis
Condition of change of shape or form. A worm-like larva undergoes a change in shape to become a butterfly. This is an example of metamorphosis.
metastasis
Beyond control; spreading of a cancerous tumor.
microscope
Instrument to view small objects.
neonatal
Pertaining to a newborn (infant).
neoplasm
New growth; new formation (tumor).
pancytopenia
Condition of decrease in all cells (blood cells).
paralysis
Abnormal destruction (of nerves) leading to loss of muscle function.
parathyroid glands
Endocrine glands located near (on the dorsal side of) the thyroid gland.
percutaneous
Pertaining to through the skin.
pericardium
Membrane surrounding the heart.
periosteum
Membrane surrounding the bone.
polymorphonuclear
Pertaining to a many-shaped nucleus; a type of white blood cell.
polyneuritis
Inflammation of many nerves.
postmortem
After death.
postpartum
After childbirth; this most often refers to the mother.
precancerous
Pertaining to before cancer; a lesion that may become cancerous.
prenatal
Pertaining to before birth.
prodrome
Symptoms that appear before the onset of a more severe illness.
prolapse
Sliding forward or downward.
pseudocyesis
State of false pregnancy.
relapse
A sliding back; recurrence of symptoms of disease.
remission
To send back; disappearance of symptoms of disease.
recombinant
DNA Inserting a gene (region of DNA) from one organism into the DNA of another organism.
retroperitoneal
Pertaining to behind the peritoneum.
retroflexion
Bending backward.
subcutaneous
Pertaining to under the skin.
suprapubic
Pertaining to above the pubic bone (part of the pelvic bone).
syndactyly
Condition of webbed (held together) fingers or toes; a congenital anomaly.
synthesis
"To put, place together, as in protein synthesis or photosynthesis. "
syndrome
A group of symptoms that run (occur) together. In synchrony means timed (chron/o) together.
symbiosis
"Condition or state of ""life together""; two organisms living together for mutual benefit or not (parasitism). "
symmetry
"State of ""measurement together""; equality of parts; mirror images. "
symphysis
To grow together; bones that grow together at the joint.
tachypnea
Rapid breathing.
transfusion
"To pour across, as in transferring blood from one person to another. "
transurethral
Pertaining to through the urethra.
ultrasonography
Process of recording ultrasound (beyond the normal range) waves.
unilateral
Pertaining to one side.
necrotic
Pertaining to death (of cells).
angiogram
Record (x-ray) of a blood vessel.
angioplasty
Surgical repair of a blood vessel.
aortic stenosis
Narrowing of the aorta.
arteriosclerosis
Hardening of arteries.
arterial anastomosis
Surgical connection between arteries.
arteriography
Process of recording (x-ray) arteries after injecting contrast material.
endarterectomy
Removal of the inner lining of the artery (when it is filled with plaque).
atheroma
Collection of fatty material in an artery.
atherosclerosis
Hardening of arteries with deposit of fatty substance.
atherectomy
Removal of a fatty mass in a vessel.
atrial
Pertaining to an upper chamber of the heart.
atrioventricular
Pertaining to an atrium and ventricle (upper and lower chambers of the heart).
brachial artery
Artery that branches from the aorta to bring blood to the arm.
cardiomegaly
Enlargement of the heart.
cardiomyopathy
Disease of heart muscle.
bradycardia
Condition of slow heartbeat.
tachycardia
Condition of fast heartbeat.
hypercholesterolemia
Condition of excessive cholesterol in the blood.
coronary arteries
Arteries branch from the aorta to bring oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle.
cyanosis
Abnormal condition of bluish discoloration due to poor oxygenation of blood.
myxoma
Benign tumor of the heart (myx/o = mucus). The tumor is embedded in soft mucoid stromal tissue.
hypoxia
Condition of decreased oxygen in inspired air; as occurs in high altitudes.
pericardiocentesis
Surgical puncture of the membrane surrounding the heart (to remove fluid).
phlebotomy
Incision of a vein.
thrombophlebitis
Inflammation of a vein with clots.
sphygmomanometer
Instrument to measure blood pressure.
stethoscope
Instrument to examine the chest.
thrombolysis
Destruction of clots.
valvuloplasty
Surgical repair of a valve (within the heart).
mitral valvulitis
Inflammation of the mitral valve.
valvotomy
Incision of a valve.
vasoconstriction
Narrowing of vessels.
vasodilation
Widening of vessels.
vascular
Pertaining to blood vessels.
venous
Pertaining to veins.
venipuncture
Incision of a vein for phlebotomy or to start an intravenous infusion.
interventricular septum
The wall separating the ventricles of the heart (lower chambers).
perianal
Pertaining to surrounding the anus.
appendectomy
Removal (resection) of the appendix.
appendicitis
Inflammation of the appendix.
buccal mucosa
The mucous membrane (mucosa) lining the cheek.
cecal
Pertaining to the cecum.
celiac
Pertaining to the abdomen.
cheilosis
Abnormal condition of the lip.
cholecystectomy
Removal of the gallbladder.
choledochotomy
Incision of the common bile duct.
colostomy
New opening of the colon to the outside of the body.
colonic
Pertaining to the colon.
colonoscopy
Process of visual examination of the colon.
dentibuccal
Pertaining to tooth and cheek.
duodenal
Pertaining to the duodenum (first part of the small intestine).
enterocolitis
Inflammation of the small and large intestines.
enterocolostomy
New opening between the small and large intestines (an anastomosis).
mesentery
"Membrane that holds the intestines together (literally, middle of the intestines). "
parenteral
Pertaining to apart from the intestines (refers to delivery of substances any way other than through the digestive tract).
esophageal
Pertaining to the esophagus.
facial
Pertaining to the face.
gastrostomy
New opening into the stomach through the abdominal wall. This may be necessary to introduce food into the stomach.
gingivitis
Inflammation of the gums.
hypoglossal
Pertaining to under the tongue.
hepatoma
Tumor (malignant) of the liver; hepatocellular carcinoma.
hepatomegaly
Enlargement of the liver.
ileocecal sphincter
Pertaining to the ring of muscles between the ileum and the cecum.
ileitis
Inflammation of the ileum.
ileostomy
New opening of the ileum to the outside of the body.
choledochojejunostomy
New opening between the common bile duct and the jejunum; anastomosis.
gastrojejunostomy
New opening between the stomach and the jejunum; anastomosis.
labial
Pertaining to the lip.
laparoscopy
Visual examination of the abdomen.
sublingual
Pertaining to under the tongue.
submandibular
Pertaining to under the lower jaw.
orthodontist
Dentist specializing in straightening teeth.
periodontist
Dentist specializing in gums.
endodontist
Dentist specializing in operating within the tooth (root canal specialist).
oral
Pertaining to the mouth.
palatoplasty
Surgical repair of the palate.
pancreatitis
Inflammation of the pancreas.
peritonitis
Inflammation of the peritoneum.
pharyngeal
Pertaining to the throat.
proctologist
Specialist in the anus and rectum.
pyloroplasty
Surgical repair of the pyloric sphincter.
rectocele
Hernia of the rectum.
sialadenitis
Inflammation of salivary glands.
sigmoidoscopy
Visual examination of the sigmoid colon.
stomatitis
Inflammation of the mouth.
amylase
Enzyme that digests starch.
biliary
Pertaining to bile.
hyperbilirubinemia
Excess bilirubin in the blood.
cholelithiasis
Abnormal condition of gall stones.
achlorhydria
Lack of hydrochloric acid.
gluconeogenesis
Production of new sugar from proteins and fats (by the liver).
hyperglycemia
High blood sugar.
glycogenolysis
Breakdown of glycogen to form sugar (glucose).
lipoma
Tumor of fat (benign).
cholecystolithiasis
Condition of stones in the gallbladder.
protease
Enzyme that digests protein.
sialolith
Salivary (gland) stone.
steatorrhea
Discharge of fats (in feces).
lipase
Enzyme to digest fats.
hematochezia
Bright red blood in the feces.
choledocholithiasis
Condition of stones in the common bile duct.
postprandial
Pertaining to after meals.
bronchiectasis
Dilation of bronchial tubes.
lymphangiectasia
Dilation of lymph vessels.
hematemesis
Vomiting blood (from the digestive tract).
hemolysis
Destruction of blood.
dyspepsia
Difficult digestion; indigestion.
polyphagia
Much (over) eating.
dysphagia
Difficult swallowing.
odynophagia
Painful swallowing.
rhinoplasty
Surgical repair of the nose.
blepharoplasty
Surgical repair of the eyelid.
proptosis
Forward protrusion of the eye.
hemoptysis
Spitting up blood (from the respiratory tract).
hemorrhage
Bursting forth of blood.
menorrhagia
Heavy discharge of blood during menstruation.
herniorrhaphy
Suture (repair) of a hernia.
dysmenorrhea
Painful menstruation.
pylorospasm
Involuntary contraction of the pyloric sphincter.
bronchospasm
"Sudden, involuntary contraction of bronchial tubes (as during an asthmatic attack). "
cholestasis
Stoppage of the flow of bile.
hemostasis
Stoppage of blood flow.
pyloric stenosis
Narrowing of the pyloric sphincter.
atresia
Not open (no opening).
esophageal atresia
No opening of the esophagus (into the stomach).
biliary atresia
No opening of the bile ducts (into the duodenum).
buccal
Pertaining to the cheek.
cecal volvulus
Twisting of a part of the cecum upon itself.
celiac artery
Artery carrying blood to the abdomen.
cheilosis
Abnormal condition of the lip.
cholelithiasis
Abnormal condition of gallstones.
cholangiectasis
Dilation of bile vessels.
cholecystectomy
Removal of the gallbladder.
choledochal
Pertaining to the common bile duct.
colectomy
Removal of the colon.
colonoscopy
Visual examination of the colon.
dentalgia
Pain in a tooth.
gastroduodenal anastomosis
New opening between the stomach and the duodenum.
gastroenteritis
Inflammation of the stomach and intestines.
esophageal atresia
Closure of the esophagus.
gastrojejunostomy
New opening between the stomach and the jejunum.
gingivectomy
Removal of gums.
glossopharyngeal
Pertaining to the tongue and throat.
glycolysis
Breakdown of sugar.
hepatomegaly
Enlargement of the liver.
herniorrhaphy
Suture of a hernia.
ileostomy
New opening of the ileum to the outside of the body.
cholecystojejunostomy
New opening between the gallbladder and the jejunum.
labioglossopharyngeal
"Pertaining to the lips, tongue, and throat. "
sublingual
Pertaining to under the tongue.
lipase
Enzyme to digest fat.
cholecystolithiasis
Abnormal condition of stones in the gallbladder.
periodontal membrane
Membrane surrounding a tooth.
oropharynx
The region of the throat near the mouth.
palatoplasty
Surgical repair of the palate.
pancreatic
Pertaining to the pancreas.
proctosigmoidoscopy
Visual examination of the anus and rectum.
pyloric stenosis
Narrowing of the pyloric sphincter.
rectosigmoidoscopy
Visual examination of the sigmoid colon and rectum.
sialadenectomy
Removal of a salivary gland.
splenic flexure
Area of the colon that bends downward near the spleen.
steatorrhea
Discharge of fat in feces.
aphthous stomatitis
Inflammation of the mouth with small ulcers.
cerebellar
Pertaining to the cerebellum.
cerebrospinal fluid
Fluid that surrounds the brain and spinal cord and is located within the ventricles of the brain.
cerebral cortex
The outer region (gray matter) of the cerebrum.
subdural hematoma
Collection of blood under the dura mater (outermost layer of the meninges).
epidural hematoma
Collection of blood above the dura mater.
encephalitis
Inflammation of the brain.
encephalopathy
Any disease of the brain.
anencephaly
Condition of no brain (congenital anomaly).
glial cells
"Supportive and connective cells of the nervous system (important in formation of myelin, transport of materials to neurons, and maintenance of cellular environment). "
glioblastoma
Tumour (malignant) of glial (neuroglial or supportive) cells in the brain.
leptomeningitis
Inflammation of the pia mater and arachnoid membrane.
meningeal
Pertaining to the meninges.
meningioma
Tumor of the meninges.
meningomyelocele
Hernia of the meninges and spinal cord.
myoneural
Pertaining to muscle and nerve.
myelogram
Record (x-ray) of the spinal cord.
poliomyelitis
Inflammation of the gray matter of the spinal cord.
neuropathy
Disease of nerves.
polyneuritis
"Inflammation of many (spinal) nerves, causing paralysis, pain, and wasting of muscles. Gullain-Barré syndrome (sequela of certain viral infections with paresthesias and muscular weakness) is an example. "
cerebellopontine
Pertaining to the cerebellum and the pons.
radiculopathy
Disease of the spinal nerve roots.
radiculitis
Inflammation of nerve roots.
thalamic
Pertaining to the thalamus.
intrathecal injection
Placement of substances (medications) into the subarachnoid space.
vagal
Pertaining to the vagus (10th cranial) nerve.
analgesia
Condition of no sensation of pain (usually accompanied by sedation without loss of consciousness).
hypalgesia
Diminished sensation to pain.
neuralgia
Nerve pain.
cephalgia
Headache (head pain).
causalgia
Burning sensation of pain (in the skin); usually following injury to sensory fibers of a peripheral nerve.
comatose
"In a state of coma (profound unconsciousness from which one cannot be roused; may be due to trauma, disease, or action of ingested toxic substance). "
anesthesia
Condition of no nervous sensation.
hyperesthesia
"Excessive sensitivity to touch, pain, or other sensory stimuli. "
paresthesia
"An abnormal sensation such as numbness, tingling, or pricking. "
bradykinesia
Slowness of movement.
hyperkinesis
Condition of excessive movement (muscular activity).
akinetic
Pertaining to without movement.
epilepsy
Chronic disorder marked by attacks of brain dysfunction due to excessive firing of nervous impulses.
narcolepsy
"Sudden, uncontrollable episodes of sleep (seizure of sleep). "
dyslexia
"Disorder of reading, writing, or learning (despite the ability to see and recognize letters). "
hemiparesis
Slight paralysis in either the right or left half of the body.
aphasia
Condition of inability to speak.
hemiplegia
Paralysis in half of the body.
paraplegia
Paralysis in the lower portion of the body.
quadriplegia
Paralysis of all four limbs of the body.
apraxia
Inability to carry out familiar purposeful movements (in the absence of paralysis or sensory or motor impairment).
neurasthenia
Condition of lack of nerve strength; nervous exhaustion and weakness.
syncopal
Pertaining to syncope (fainting).
ataxia
No muscular coordination (often caused by cerebellar dysfunction).
adenoid hypertrophy
Excessive development (enlargement) of adenoids.
adenoidectomy
Removal of adenoids.
alveolar
Pertaining to an alveolus.
anosmia
Absence of the sense of smell.
apnea
Stoppage of breathing.
asphyxia
Decrease in the amount of oxygen and increase in amount of carbon dioxide in the blood leading to absence of pulse.
atelectasis
Incomplete expansion of a lung (collapsed lung).
bronchiectasis
Dilation of bronchial tubes.
bronchiolitis
Inflammation of bronchioles.
bronchodilator
A substance (chemical or drug) that widens bronchial tubes to make breathing easier.
bronchospasm
Involuntary contraction of muscles in the walls of bronchial tubes.
cyanosis
Condition of bluish coloration of skin caused by decreased oxygen in the blood.
dysphonia
Difficult (abnormal) voice; hoarseness or any voice impairment.
dyspnea
Difficult breathing.
empyema
Pus in the pleural cavity.
epiglottitis
Inflammation of the epiglottis.
expectoration
Expulsion of material (mucus or phlegm).
expiration
The expulsion of air from the lungs.
hemoptysis
Spitting up blood.
hemothorax
"Blood in the pleural cavity; seen in pneumonia, tuberculosis, or carcinoma."
hypercapnia
Excessive carbon dioxide in the blood.
hyperpnea
Increase in depth of breathing.
hypoxia
Deficiency of oxygen (anoxia) due to decreased oxygen in blood.
laryngeal
Pertaining to the larynx.
laryngitis
Inflammation of the voice box.
laryngospasm
Contraction of the muscles of the larynx.
lobectomy
Removal of a lobe (of the lung).
mediastinoscopy
Visual examination of the mediastinum.
nasogastric tube
Tube placed from the nose into the stomach.
orthopnea
"Breathing discomfort in any position but erect, sitting, or standing straight. "
paranasal sinuses
"Pertaining to spaces in the skull that are near, alongside, the nose and nasal cavities. "
pharyngeal
Pertaining to the throat.
phrenic nerve
Nerve carrying messages from the brain to the diaphragm.
pleural effusion
Fluid collects in the pleural cavity (space).
pleurodynia
Pain associated with inflammation of irritation of pleura (or pain from intercostal muscles).
pneumoconiosis
Abnormal condition of dust in the lungs.
pneumonectomy
Removal of a lung.
pneumothorax
Air within the pleural cavity surrounding the lungs.
pulmonary
Pertaining to lungs.
pyothorax
Pus in the pleural cavity (empyema of the chest).
respiration
Breathing (inspiration and expiration).
rhinoplasty
Surgical repair of the nose.
rhinorrhea
Discharge from the nose.
sinusitis
Inflammation of sinuses.
spirometer
Instrument to measure breathing (the air taken into and exhaled from the lungs).
tachypnea
Increase in rate of breathing; shallow respirations.
thoracic
Pertaining to the chest.
thoracotomy
Incision of the chest.
tonsillectomy
Removal of tonsils.
tracheal stenosis
Pertaining to narrowing of the trachea.
tracheotomy
Incision of the trachea.
Aden/o
Gland
Arthr/o
Joint
Bi/o
Life
Carcin/o
Cancerous, Cancer
Cardi/o
Heart
Cephal/o
Head
Cerebr/o
Cerebrum (largest part of brain)
Cis/o
To cut
Crin/o
Secrete (to form and give off)
Cyst/o
Urinary bladder, a sac or cyst
Cyt/o
Cell
Derm/o
Skin
Dermat/o
Skin
Electr/o
Electricity
Encephal/o
Brain
Enter/o
Intestines
Erythr/o
Red
Gastr/o
Stomach
Gnos/o
Knowledge
Gynec/o
Woman, female
Hemat/o
Blood
Hem/o
Blood
Hepat/o
Liver
Iatr/o
Treatment
Leuk/o
White
Nephr/o
Kidney
Neur/o
Nerve
Onc/o
Tumor
Ophthalm/o
Eye
Oste/o
Bone
Path/o
Disease
Ped/o
Child
Psych/o
Mind
Radi/o
x-rays
Ren/o
Kidney
Rhin/o
Nose
Sarc/o
Flesh
Sect/o
To cut
Thromb/o
Clot, clotting
Ur/o
Urinary tract, urine
-ac
Pertaining to
-al
Pertaining to
-algia
Pain
-cyte
Cell
-ectomy
Excision, removal
-emia
Blood condition
-genic
Pertaining to producing, produced by, or produced in
-gram
Record
-ic -ical
Pertaining to
-ion
Process
-ist
Specialist
-itis
Inflammation
-logy
Study of
-oma
Tumor, mass, swelling
-opsy
Process of viewing
-osis
Condition, usually abnormal
-pathy
Disease condition
-scope
Instruments to visually examine
-scopy
Process of visually examining
-sis
State of
-tomy
Process of cutting, incision
-y
Process, condition
a-, an-
No, not, without
Auto-
Self
Dia-
Through, complete
Endo-
Within
Epi-
Above, upon
Ex-
Out
Exo-
Out
Hyper-
Excessive, above, more than normal
Hypo-
Deficient, below, under, less than normal
In-
Into, in
Peri-
Surrounding, around
Pro-
Before, forward
Re-
Back, backward, again
Retro-
Behind
Sub-
Below, under
Trans-
Across, through
Abdomin/o
Abdomen
Adip/o
Fat
Anter/o
Front
Bol/o
To cast (throw)
Cervic/o
Neck (of body or of uterus
Chondr/o
Cartilage (type of connective tissue)
Chrom/o
Color
Coccyg/o
Coccyx (tailbone)
Crani/o
Skull
Cyt/o
Cell
Dist/o
Far, distant
Dors/o
Back portion of the body
Hist/o
Tissue
Ili/o
Ilium (part of the pelvic bone
Inguin/o
Groin
Kary/o
Nucleus
Later/o
Side
Lumb/o
Lower back (side and back b/t lower pubis)
Medi/o
Middle
Nucle/o
Nucleus
Pelv/o
Hip, pelvic cavity
Poster/o
Back, behind
Proxim/o
Nearest
Sacr/o
Sacrum
Sarc/o
Flesh
Spin/o
Spine, backbone
Thel/o
Nipple
Thorac/o
Chest
Trache/o
Trachea, windpipe
Umbilic/o
Navel, umbilicus
Ventr/o
Belly side of the body
Viscer/o
Internal organs
PrefixesAna-
Up
Cata-
Down
Epi-
Above
Hypo-
Below
Inter-
Between
Meta-
Change
-eal
Pertaining to
-iac
Pertaining to
-ior
Pertaining to
-ism
Process
-ose
Pertainint to, full of
-plasm
Formation
-somes
Bodies
-type
Picture, classification
1. Hypogastric region
Area below the stomach
2. Mediastinum
Space between the lungs
3. Spinal cord
Nervous issue within the spinal cavity
4. Diaphragm
Muscle separating the abdominal and thoracic cavities
5. Intervertebral disc
Pad of cartilage between each vertebra
6. Pleural cavity
Space surrounding each lung
7. Spinal column
Bone tissue surrounding the spinal cavity
8. Inguinal areas
Areas near the groin
9. Peritoneum
Membrane surrounding the abdominal organs
10. Umbilical Region
Area of the navel
11. Epigastric Region
Area above the stomach
Abdomin/o
Abdomen
Acr/o
Extremities, top, extreme point
Acu/o
Sharp, severe, sudden
Aden/o
Gland
Agor/a
Marketplace
Amni/o
Amnion (sac around embryo)
Angi/o
Vessel
Arteri/o
Artery
Axill/o
Armpit
Arthr/o
Joint
Blephar/o
Eyelid
Bronch/o
Bronchial tubes
Carcin/o
Cancer
Chem/o
Drug, chemical
Chondr/o
Cartilage
Chron/o
Time
Col/o
Colon (large intestine)
Cyst/o
Urinary bladder
Encephal/o
Brain
Hydr/o
Water, fluid
Inguin/o
Groin
Isch/o
To hold back
Lapar/o
Abdomen, abdominal wall
Laryng/o
Larynx (voice box)
Lymph/o
Lymph
Mamm/o
Breast
Mast/o
Breast
Muc/o
Mucus
Morph/o
Shape, form
My/o
Muscle
Myel/o
Spinal cord, bone marrow
Necr/o
Death (of cells or whole body)
Nephr/o
Kidney
Neur/o
Nerve
Neutr/o
Neutrophil (a white blood cell)
Ophthalm/o
Eye
Oste/o
Bone
Ot/o
Ear
Path/o
Disease
Peritone/o
Peritoneum
Phag/o
To eat, swallow
Phleb/o
Vein
Plas/o
Formation, development
Pleur/o
Pleura (surrounding lungs)
Pneumon/o
Lungs
Plumon/o
Lungs
Rect/o
Rectum
Ren/o
Kidney
Sarc/o
Flesh
Splen/o
Spleen
Stapohyl/o
Cluster
Strept/o
Twisted chains
Thorac/o
Chest
Thromb/o
Clot
Tonsil/o
Tonsils
Trache/o
Trachea (windpipe)
Ven/o
vein
-algia
Pain
-cele
Hernia
-centesis
Surgical puncture to remove fluid
-coccus
Berry shaped bacterium (pl.bacteria)
-cyte
Cell
-dynia
Pain
-ectomy
Excision, removal, resection
-emia
Blood condition
-genesis
Condition of producing, forming
-genic
Pertaining to producing, produced by or in
-gram
Record
-graph
Instrument for recording
-graphy
Process of recording
-itis
Inflammation
-logy
Study of
-lysis
Breakdown, destruction, separation
-malacia
Softening
-megaly
Enlargement
-oma
Tumor, mass, collection of fluid
-opsy
To view
-osis
Condition, usually abnormal
-pathy
Disease condition
-penia
Deficiency
-phobia
Fear
-plasia
Development, formation, growth
-plasty
Surgical repair
-ptosis
Drooping, sagging, prolapse
-sclerosis
Hardening
-scope
Instrument for visual examination
-scopy
Process of visual examination
-stasis
Stopping, controlling
-stomy
Opening to form a mouth (stoma)
-therapy
Treatment
-tomy
Incision, to cut into
-trophy
Development, nourishment
-er
One who
-ia
Condition
-ist
Specialist
-ole
Little, small
-ule
Little, small
-um, -ium
Structure, tissue, thing
-y
Condition, process
-ac, -iac
Pertaining to
-al
Pertaining to
-ar
Pertaining to
-ary
Pertaining to
-eal
Pertaining to
-ic, ical
Pertaining to
-oid
Resembling
-ose
Pertaining to, full of
-ous
Pertaining to
-tic
Pertaining to
Carp/o
Wrist bones
Cib/o
Meals
Cis/o
To cut
Cost/o
Rib
Cutane/o
Skin
Dactyl/o
Fingers, toes
Duct/o
To lead, carry
Flex/o
To bend
Furc/o
Forking, branching
Gloss/o
Tounge
Glyc/o
Sugar
Immun/o
Protection
Morph/o
Shape, form
Mort/o
Death
Nat/i
Birth
Nect/o
To bind, tie, connect
Norm/o
Rule, order
Ox/o
Oxygen
Pub/o
Pubis, anterior portion
Seps/o
Infection
Somn/o
Sleep
Son/o
Sound
The/o
To put, place
Thel/o
Nipple
Thyr/o
Shield, the shape of the thyroid
Top/o
Place, position, location
Tox/o
Poison
Trache/o
Windpipe, trachea
Urethr/o
Urethra
-blast
Embryonic, immature
-cyesis
Pregnancy
-drome
To run
-fusion
Coming together, to pour
-gen
Producing, forming
-lapse
To slide, fall, sag
-lysis
Breakdown, separation loosening
-meter
To measure
-mission
To send
-or
One who
-partum
Birth, labor
-phoria
To bear, carry, feeling (mental state)
-physis
To grow
-plasia
Development, formation
-plasm
Development, formation
-pnea
Breathing
-ptosis
Droop, sag, prolapse
-rrhea
Flow, discharge
-stasis
Stop, control, place
-trophy
Nourishment, development
a-, an-
No, not, without
Ab-
Away from
Ad-
Toward
Ana-
Up, apart
Ante-
Before, forward
Anti-
Against
Auto-
Self, own
Bi-
Two
Brady-
Slow
Cata-
Down
Con-
With, together
Contra-
Against, opposite
De-
Down, lack of
Dia-
Through, complete
Dys-
Bad, painful, difficult, abnormal
Ec-, ecto-
Out, outside
En-, endo-
In, within
Epi-
Upon, on, above
Eu-
Good, normal
Ex-
Out, away from
Hemi-
Half
Hyper-
Excessive, above
Hypo-
Deficient, under
In-
Not
In-
Into, within
Infra-
Beneath
Inter-
Between
Intra-
Into, within
Macro-
Large
Mal-
Bad
Meta-
Beyond, change
Micro-
Small
Neo-
New
Pan-
All
Para-
Abnormal, beside, near
Per-
Through
Peri-
Surrounding
Poly-
Many, much
Post-
After, behind
Pre-
Before, in front of
Pro-
Before, forward
Pseudo-
False
Re-
Back, again
Retro-
Behind, backward
Sub-
Under
Supra-
Above, upper
Syn-, sym-
Together with
Tachy-
Fast
Trans-
Across, through
Ultra-
Beyond, excess
Uni-
One
An/o
Anus
Append/o
Appendix
Appendic/o
Appendix
Bucc/o
Cheek
Cec/o
Cecum
Celi/o
Belly, abdomen
Cheil/o
Lip
Cholecyst/o
Gallbladder